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Silvery Pigeon Columba argentina
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Justification
Photographs taken in 2008 and 2010 confirm that this species survives in the wild. However, it is listed as Critically Endangered because it is precautionarily assumed to have a tiny population. There is now a greater chance of recording the species following the documentation of key identification criteria, and it may warrant downlisting if future surveys find it to be more numerous than was feared.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
34-38 cm. Large, silvery-grey and black pigeon. Male mostly pale bluish-grey with black primaries and secondaries. Uppertail-coverts and base of tail greyish-white, distal half of tail black. Orbital skin red. Female similar but slightly darker and less silvery. Similar spp. Pied Imperial-pigeon Ducula bicolor is extremely similar at a distance, but slightly larger, generally white rather than silvery and lacks red orbital skin. Voice Undocumented. Hints Almost always encountered on small islands.

Distribution and population
Columba argentina appears to have a highly restricted range, with historical records suggesting that it at least formerly occurred on islands off Sumatra, Indonesia (e.g. Simeulue, Mentawi Islands, Riau and Lingga archipelagos), and off the west coast of Sarawak, Malaysia and Kalimantan, Indonesia (e.g the Karimata and Natuna Islands, including Burong). There is one confirmed historical record each from mainland Sumatra and Kalimantan. There were previously no confirmed reports since 1931, and reports from South Sumatra province and Pulau Talang Besar in the Talang Talang Islands in 2001 were treated as provisional (Wilson 2004). However, in 2008 one individual was photographed between the islets of Masokut Island and Simaimu Islands, off the southern tip of Siberut in the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, confirming that the species survives in the wild (Lee et al. 2009). This record was followed by at least one other sighting on Siberut of two birds that were possibly this species, in January 2009 (Verbelen 2010).

Unequivocal evidence that the species persists on Simeulue came in the form of at least three birds photographed in late December 2010 (J. Eaton in litt. 2010, Eaton 2011, Eaton and Rossouw 2011). There is also a photograph of two captive individuals in Hong Kong, and pictures of a small flock of birds, potentially C. argentina, from the Sembilang National Park in 2008 (Anon 2009, M. Iqbal in litt. 2009, Iqbal 2010). Interviews with 20 local people near the Merang-Kepayang River (South Sumatra), in August 2009, produced one possible record (Iqbal 2010). There is also a report of a single bird in peatswamp forest at Berbak National Park (Jambi province, Sumatra) from February 2011 (M. Iqbal in litt. 2012). A further three individuals were observed (but no photographs obtained) on Bojo islet, Batu islands (off the west coast of Sumatra between Nias and Siberut) in January 2011 (Eaton and Rossouw 2011).

Given the difficulty in distinguishing C. argentina from the sympatric Ducula bicolor, it is likely that C. argentina has been overlooked in previous surveys for the species (Lee et al. 2009). Following the documentation of key differences between the two species (Yong 2009), it is likely that further surveys will result in the discovery of remnant populations.

Population justification
This newly re-discovered species is precautionarily assumed to have a tiny population (fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals). However, given the probable misidentification of C. argentina in past surveys, and the documentation of key differences between the species and the similar sympatric Ducula bicolor, future surveys may well identify remnant populations and revise the population estimate upwards.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to island settlement, deforestation, disturbance, hunting and predation by invasive species.

Ecology
It inhabits mangroves and coastal forests in the lowlands and hills of offshore islands, occasionally being found in similar habitats below 100 m on mainland Sumatra and Borneo. Although poorly known, available evidence suggests it wanders seasonally or disperses between islands in response to food supply.

Threats
Although little is known about the species, it may be speculated that settlement, deforestation, disturbance, hunting on small islands and the introduction of mammalian predators have caused widespread declines, as is the case for a number of other declining columbiformes. The birds photographed on Simeulue Island in December 2010 were found to be tame, prompting concerns that they could be easy targets for the island's hunters, although it was noted that other pigeon species were abundant (J. Eaton in litt. 2010, Eaton 2011). Poaching to supply the pet trade may be a further threat, as exemplified by two captive birds in Hong Kong (Lee et al. 2009). Habitat loss is likely to be a major threat, with extensive clearance for logging and conversion to agriculture and plantations taking place throughout the species's range (Lee et al. 2009, Iqbal 2010). The locality of the recent records on Simeulue is being mined for gravel (J. Eaton in litt. 2010, Eaton 2011), which could result in the loss of suitable habitat (J. Eaton in litt. 2010). Further mining is planned on Simeulue, as are large-scale oil palm plantations (Eaton 2011), which could result in extensive habitat loss, although the island currently remains heavily forested (Eaton and Rossouw 2011). The Batu islands remained extensively forested with minimal clearance in 2011 (Eaton and Rossouw 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
Recent provisional observations have been made in two protected areas, the Berbak Game Reserve and Padang-Sugihan Wildlife Reserve, both in South Sumatra. Further searches for the species are planned (M. Iqbal in litt. 2012).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys on islands within its historical range (and mangroves and swamp-forest of South Sumatra province [Iqbal 2010]) to clarify its current distribution, population status, movements and attendant threats. Priority islands to search include Jemaja and Natuna islands and small islands off South Bangka Island (M. Iqbal in litt. 2012, D. L. Yong in litt. 2012). Formulate a conservation strategy involving protection of key islands, especially those supporting breeding populations. Study fruiting tree phenology where the species has been recorded or is suspected to be extant to improve knowledge of food availability and the species's feeding ecology (Lee et al. 2009). Initiate conservation measures on Simeulue to counter the potential threats of hunting pressure and the loss and degradation of suitable habitat (Eaton 2011).

References
Anon. 2009. Silvery Wood Pigeon Columba argentina - International Dove Society. Available at: #http://www.internationaldovesociety.com/SeedSpecies/SilveryWoodPigeon.htm#.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Eaton, J. 2011. Silvery Wood Pigeon Columba argentina rediscovered. Suara Enggang 19(1): 6-7.

Eaton, J.; Rossouw, J. 2011. Little-known Asian bird: Silvery Pigeon Columba argentina on Simeuluë and the Batu islands, Sumatra, Indonesia. BirdingASIA 15: 78-79.

Iqbal, M. 2010. In search of the Silvery Pigeon Columba argentina in South Sumatran province, Indonesia. BirdingASIA 13: 9-10.

Lee, M. T.; Yong Ding Li; Ong Tun Pin. 2009. A photographic record of Silvery Pigeon Columba argentina from the Mentawai Islands, Indonesia, with notes on identification, distribution and conservation. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 129(3): 122-128.

Verbelen, P. 2010. Silvery Pigeon on Siberut, Mentawai Islands, Sumatra, Indonesia. BirdingASIA 13: 9.

Wilson, K.J. 2004. A provisional sighting of the Silvery Pigeon on the Talang Talang Islands, Sarawak, Malaysia. BirdingASIA: 55-57.

Yong Ding Li. 2009. Notes on the status and identification of the Silvery Pigeon Columba argentina. BirdingASIA 11: 53-58.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Calvert, R., Davidson, P., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Tobias, J. & Allinson, T

Contributors
Eaton, J., Iqbal, M., Wilson, K., Verbelen, F. & Yong, D.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Columba argentina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Bonaparte, 1855
Population size 1-49 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 21 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species