email a friend
printable version
White-tailed Laurel-pigeon Columba junoniae
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
Please email us with any relevant information

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) B1ab(iii)+2ab(iii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Near Threatened
2011 Near Threatened
2008 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,200 medium
Area of Occupancy breeding/resident (km2) 700 good
Number of locations 5-10 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2000-5000 poor Estimated 2004
Population trend Increasing medium Suspected -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.59 - - -
Population justification: The breeding population is estimated to number 1,000-2,500 breeding pairs, equating to 3,000-7,500 individuals, roughly equivalent to 2,000-5,000 mature individuals.
Trend justification: The species's Area of Occupancy is larger than previously thought and may have increased over the last 20 years (Barov and Derhé 2011), thus its population is suspected to have increased over the last 17 years (estimate of three generations).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Spain Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Spain El Canal y Los Tiles laurel forest site factsheet
Spain Garajonay National Park site factsheet
Spain La Caldera de Taburiente National Park site factsheet
Spain La Palma laurel forest site factsheet
Spain Las Mercedes, Mina y Yedra, Aguirre, La Goleta, and Pedro Alvarez mountains site factsheet
Spain Las Vueltas, Aguas Negras and Quebradas mountains site factsheet
Spain Mountain of Agua, gully of Los Cochinos and gully of Cuevas Negras site factsheet
Spain San Andrés, Pijaral and Anaga mountains site factsheet
Spain Santa Trsula and La Victoria laurel forest site factsheet
Spain Step rocks of Hermigua and Agulo site factsheet
Spain Tigaiga slope site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land Suitable non-breeding
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves Suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry Major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland Major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry Suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases / Black Rat (Rattus rattus) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Reduced reproductive success


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Subsistence, National
Food - human - - - Subsistence, National

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Columba junoniae. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Hartert, 1916
Population size 2000-5000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,200 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- 2015 European Red List assessment