email a friend
printable version
Stock Dove Columba oenas

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,640,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,640,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Stable -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.3 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 520000-730000 breeding pairs, equating to 1560000-2190000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 75-94% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 1700000-3000000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed.
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats. In Europe, trends since 1980 have been stable, based on provisional data for 21 countries from the Pan-European Common Bird Monitoring Scheme (EBCC/RSPB/BirdLife/Statistics Netherlands; P. Vorisek in litt. 2008).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Vagrant Extant      
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Algeria Native Extant      
Andorra Native Extant Yes    
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Belarus Native Extant Yes    
Belgium Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Bulgaria Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Croatia Native Extant      
Cyprus Native Extant   Yes  
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant Yes   Yes
Egypt Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Vagrant Extant      
Finland Native Extant     Yes
France Native Extant     Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Native Extant     Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant      
Hungary Native Extant     Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant      
Iraq Native Extant   Yes  
Ireland Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant      
Italy Native Extant      
Japan Vagrant Extant      
Jordan Native Extant   Yes  
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kuwait Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Kyrgyzstan Vagrant Extant      
Latvia Native Extant Yes    
Lebanon Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Libya Vagrant Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant Yes    
Lithuania Native Extant      
Luxembourg Native Extant Yes    
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Malta Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant     Yes
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Morocco Native Extant      
Netherlands Native Extant      
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Oman Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant   Yes  
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant      
Romania Native Extant     Yes
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes    
Saudi Arabia Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant Yes    
Spain Native Extant     Yes
Sweden Native Extant Yes    
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant   Yes  
Tajikistan Native Extant      
Tunisia Vagrant Extant      
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant     Yes
United Arab Emirates Vagrant Extant   Yes  
United Kingdom Native Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Czech Republic Beskydy mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Doupov hills site factsheet
Czech Republic Jeseniky mountains site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Czech Republic Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains) site factsheet
Finland Ruissalo site factsheet
Poland Augustów forest site factsheet
Poland Bialowieza Forest site factsheet
Poland Elblag Height site factsheet
Poland Forest at Drawa River site factsheet
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Buzulukski forest site factsheet
Russia (European) Racheyski forest site factsheet
Spain La Safor and North Alicante mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Mountains of Barcelona site factsheet
Spain Peñagolosa site factsheet
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos site factsheet
Turkey Yenice forest site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable non-breeding
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves marginal resident
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate suitable breeding
Forest Temperate suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 2300 m


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Columba oenas. Downloaded from on 16/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 16/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Columbidae (Doves and pigeons)
Species name author Linnaeus, 1758
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,640,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species