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LC
Rock Dove Columba livia

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type   Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 17,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.8 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.260,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004), while the population in China has been estimated at < c.100 breeding pairs (possibly introduced) (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population size is suspected to be decreasing owing to interbreeding with domestic form; declines have been recorded in Israel (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Afghanistan Native Extant       Yes
Albania Native Extant Yes      
Algeria Native Extant       Yes
American Samoa Introduced Extant       Yes
Andorra Native Extant       Yes
Angola Introduced Extant Yes      
Anguilla (to UK) Introduced Extant       Yes
Antigua and Barbuda Introduced Extant       Yes
Argentina Introduced Extant       Yes
Armenia Native Extant Yes      
Aruba (to Netherlands) Introduced Extant       Yes
Australia Introduced Extant Yes      
Austria Native Extant       Yes
Azerbaijan Native Extant       Yes
Bahamas Introduced Extant       Yes
Bahrain Introduced Extant       Yes
Bangladesh Introduced Extant Yes      
Barbados Introduced Extant       Yes
Belarus Native Extant       Yes
Belgium Native Extant       Yes
Belize Introduced Extant       Yes
Bermuda (to UK) Introduced Extant       Yes
Bhutan Native Extant Yes      
Bolivia Introduced Extant       Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) Introduced Extant       Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes      
Botswana Introduced Extant       Yes
Brazil Introduced Extant       Yes
Brunei Introduced Extant Yes      
Bulgaria Native Extant       Yes
Burkina Faso Introduced Extant       Yes
Cambodia Introduced Extant Yes      
Canada Introduced Extant       Yes
Cape Verde Native Extant       Yes
Cayman Islands (to UK) Introduced Extant       Yes
Chad Native Extant       Yes
Chile Introduced Extant       Yes
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes      
Colombia Introduced Extant       Yes
Comoros Introduced Extant       Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Introduced Extant       Yes
Cook Islands Introduced Extant       Yes
Costa Rica Introduced Extant       Yes
Côte d'Ivoire Introduced Extant       Yes
Croatia Native Extant       Yes
Cuba Introduced Extant       Yes
Curaçao (to Netherlands) Introduced Extant       Yes
Cyprus Native Extant       Yes
Czech Republic Native Extant Yes      
Denmark Introduced Extant       Yes
Djibouti Introduced Extant Yes      
Dominica Introduced Extant       Yes
Dominican Republic Introduced Extant       Yes
Ecuador Introduced Extant       Yes
Egypt Native Extant       Yes
El Salvador Introduced Extant       Yes
Eritrea Vagrant Extant   Yes    
Estonia Native Extant       Yes
Ethiopia Native Extant Yes      
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) Native Extant       Yes
Fiji Introduced Extant       Yes
Finland Native Extant     Yes Yes
France Native Extant       Yes
French Guiana Introduced Extant       Yes
French Polynesia Introduced Extant Yes      
Gabon Introduced Extant       Yes
Gambia Introduced Extant       Yes
Georgia Native Extant Yes      
Germany Native Extant Yes      
Ghana Introduced Extant       Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) Introduced Extant Yes      
Greece Native Extant       Yes
Grenada Introduced Extant       Yes
Guadeloupe (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
Guam (to USA) Introduced Extant Yes      
Guatemala Introduced Extant       Yes
Guinea Introduced Extant       Yes
Guinea-Bissau Introduced Extant       Yes
Guyana Introduced Extant       Yes
Haiti Introduced Extant       Yes
Honduras Introduced Extant       Yes
Hong Kong (China) Introduced Extant       Yes
Hungary Native Extant Yes      
Iceland Native Extant       Yes
India Native Extant Yes      
Indonesia Introduced Extant Yes      
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Iraq Native Extant       Yes
Ireland Native Extant       Yes
Israel Native Extant Yes      
Italy Native Extant       Yes
Jamaica Introduced Extant       Yes
Japan Introduced Extant       Yes
Jordan Native Extant       Yes
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes      
Kenya Introduced Extant       Yes
Kiribati Introduced Extant       Yes
Kuwait Introduced Extant       Yes
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes      
Laos Introduced Extant Yes      
Latvia Native Extant       Yes
Lebanon Native Extant       Yes
Lesotho Introduced Extant Yes      
Liberia Introduced Extant       Yes
Libya Native Extant       Yes
Liechtenstein Introduced Extant Yes      
Lithuania Native Extant Yes      
Luxembourg Native Extant       Yes
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant       Yes
Madagascar Introduced Extant       Yes
Malaysia Introduced Extant Yes      
Maldives Introduced Extant Yes      
Mali Native Extant       Yes
Malta Native Extant       Yes
Marshall Islands Unknown Extant       Yes
Martinique (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
Mauritania Native Extant       Yes
Mauritius Introduced Extant Yes      
Mayotte (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
Mexico Introduced Extant       Yes
Micronesia, Federated States of Introduced Extant       Yes
Moldova Native Extant       Yes
Monaco Native Extant       Yes
Mongolia Native Extant Yes      
Montenegro Native Extant Yes      
Montserrat (to UK) Introduced Extant       Yes
Morocco Native Extant       Yes
Mozambique Introduced Extant Yes      
Myanmar Native Extant Yes      
Namibia Introduced Extant Yes      
Nauru Introduced Extant Yes      
Nepal Native Extant Yes      
Netherlands Introduced Extant       Yes
New Caledonia (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
New Zealand Introduced Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Introduced Extant       Yes
Niger Introduced Extant       Yes
Nigeria Introduced Extant       Yes
North Korea Introduced Extant       Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) Introduced Extant Yes      
Norway Native Extant Yes      
Oman Native Extant       Yes
Pakistan Native Extant Yes      
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant       Yes
Panama Introduced Extant       Yes
Papua New Guinea Introduced Extant       Yes
Paraguay Introduced Extant       Yes
Peru Introduced Extant       Yes
Poland Native Extant Yes      
Portugal Native Extant       Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) Introduced Extant       Yes
Qatar Native Extant       Yes
Réunion (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
Romania Native Extant Yes      
Russia (Asian) Introduced Extant Yes      
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant       Yes
Russia (European) Native Extant Yes      
Samoa Introduced Extant       Yes
San Marino Native Extant       Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe Introduced Extant       Yes
Saudi Arabia Native Extant       Yes
Senegal Introduced Extant       Yes
Serbia Native Extant Yes      
Seychelles Introduced Extant Yes      
Singapore Introduced Extant Yes      
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) Introduced Extant       Yes
Slovakia Native Extant Yes      
Slovenia Native Extant       Yes
Somalia Introduced Extant Yes      
South Africa Introduced Extant Yes      
South Korea Introduced Extant       Yes
Spain Native Extant       Yes
Sri Lanka Introduced Extant       Yes
St Helena (to UK) Introduced Extant Yes      
St Kitts and Nevis Introduced Extant       Yes
St Lucia Introduced Extant       Yes
St Martin (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
St Vincent and the Grenadines Introduced Extant       Yes
Sudan Native Extant       Yes
Suriname Introduced Extant       Yes
Swaziland Introduced Extant Yes      
Sweden Native Extant       Yes
Switzerland Native Extant Yes      
Syria Native Extant       Yes
Taiwan (China) Introduced Extant       Yes
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes      
Thailand Introduced Extant Yes      
Timor-Leste Introduced Extant       Yes
Togo Introduced Extant       Yes
Tonga Introduced Extant       Yes
Trinidad and Tobago Introduced Extant       Yes
Tunisia Native Extant       Yes
Turkey Native Extant       Yes
Turkmenistan Native Extant Yes      
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) Introduced Extant       Yes
Uganda Introduced Extant       Yes
Ukraine Native Extant       Yes
United Arab Emirates Native Extant       Yes
United Kingdom Native Extant       Yes
United States Minor Outlying Islands (to USA) Introduced Extant Yes      
Uruguay Introduced Extant       Yes
USA Introduced Extant Yes      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes      
Venezuela Introduced Extant       Yes
Vietnam Introduced Extant Yes      
Virgin Islands (to UK) Introduced Extant       Yes
Virgin Islands (to USA) Introduced Extant       Yes
Wallis and Futuna Islands (to France) Introduced Extant       Yes
Western Sahara Native Extant Yes      
Yemen Native Extant       Yes
Zambia Introduced Extant Yes      
Zimbabwe Introduced Extant Yes      

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest major resident
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Columba livia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Columbidae (Pigeons, Doves)
Species name author Gmelin, 1789
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 17,400,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species
- Projected distributions under climate change