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Sclater's Monal Lophophorus sclateri

Justification
This striking pheasant is poorly known across almost all of its remote, inaccessible and relatively restricted range. It is classified as Vulnerable because it probably has a small population which is naturally fragmented and subject to a significant decline.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
63-68 cm. Typical monal with unusual short, curly crown feathers and chestnut tail with white terminal band. Similar spp. Curly crown feathers, white back to uppertail-coverts and chestnut tail with white terminal band of the male are diagnostic (tail all white in recently discovered population in Arunachal Pradesh, India). Female differs from Himalayan Monal L. impejanus by less extensively white throat, lack of pale streaks on underparts, broader white tail tip, paler back to uppertail-coverts and absent curly crown feathers. Juvenile (both sexes) initially like female but darker above, with buff streaks.

Distribution and population
Lophophorus sclateri is endemic to the eastern Himalayas, from Arunachal Pradesh, India, east through northern Myanmar and south-eastern Tibet to western Yunnan, China. There are recent records from Arunachal Pradesh, where it is locally fairly common, Yunnan, where numbers are thought to be stable, and Myanmar (J. C. Eames verbally 2003), where it was historically described as local and uncommon.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
The species is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, principally as a result of hunting pressure and habitat loss.

Ecology
It inhabits alpine meadows, subalpine rhododendron scrub and rocky precipitous slopes from 3,000-4,200 m, occurring down to the edge of oak-rhododendron (S. Kumar in litt. 2004) and coniferous forest with a bamboo understorey, azalea forest, and areas of juniper and cotoneaster, descending to temperate forest at 2,000-3,000 m in October (Suresh and Singh 2004). Where its range overlaps with L. impejanus, it generally occurs at higher altitudes although some local reports have described them occurring together (S. Kumar in litt. 2004). It is solitary during the breeding season (spring), but gregarious in winter. It feeds on roots, tubers, seeds, bark and leaf parts (Suresh and Singh 2004).

Threats
Hunting for food is the single main threat across the species's range. In addition, hunting for feathers (to make ornaments and fans) is a localised problem in India. In the Arbor Hills (S. Kumar in litt. 2004) and Mishmi Hills, India, hunting intensity has significantly reduced population densities. Habitat degradation as a result of logging is a more localised threat. The habitats of the newly discovered taxon in Arunachal Pradesh appear to be little threatened, owing to their inaccessibility.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I. It is legally protected in India (A. Rahmani in litt. 2012). It occurs in the Gaoligong Shan National Nature Reserve in Yunnan, China, although it appears to be rare here and numbers are probably small (Han Lianxian in litt. 2004). The creation of Dehang-Debang Biosphere Reserve in Arunachal Pradesh, which encompasses the Dibang Valley Wildlife Sanctuary, Mouling National Park and unclassified state forests, offers further protection (S. Kumar in litt. 2004). The remote nature of its habitats and range, to an extent, lessen the level of threat it faces from hunting.  In 1997, the Endangered Species Breeding Centre of Beijing received three pairs to begin a captive breeding programme, although the subsequent outcome is unknown.  Success has however been enjoyed by similar programmes for related species (BirdLife International 2001).  A new subspecies was recently described and its conservation status has been reviewed (Suresh and Singh 2004). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys in Yunnan, south-east Tibet and Arunachal Pradesh to determine its population status and range. Carry out detailed studies to assess its habitat preferences and principal threats. Campaign for protected areas in Towang, West Kameng, East Kameng and Lower Subansiri districts, Arunachal Pradesh. Assess the contribution of the protected area network to its conservation and develop appropriate management/policy recommendations. Monitor poaching and survey wildlife markets throughout its range to determine the scale and socioeconomic importance of hunting; appoint security personnel to control this threat, and carefully control the issuing of gun licences. Begin a conservation education programme in Arunachal Pradesh (A. Rahmani in litt. 2012).  Follow up the establishment of a captive breeding programme and potentially extend this further.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Keane, A.M.; Garson, P.J.; McGowan, P.J. K. in press. Pheasants: status survey and conservation action plan 2005-2009. IUCN and WPA, Gland, Switzerland.

Suresh, K. R.; Singh, P. 2004. A new subspecies of Sclater's Monal Lophophorus sclateri from western Arunachal Pradesh, India. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 16-27.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Keane, A., Taylor, J. & Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Eames, J., Kumar, S., Lianxian, H., Rimlinger, D., Zaw, U. & Zhang, Z.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Lophophorus sclateri. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Sclater’s monal (Lophophorus sclateri)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author Jerdon, 1870
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 45,500 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species