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Pygmy Nightjar Caprimulgus hirundinaceus

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Distribution and population
This species was thought to be endemic to xeric caatinga of north-east Brazil but a population was recently discovered in east-central Brazil (Cleere and Nurney 1998, Ribon 1995, Vasconcelos and Lins 1999). There are three races: the nominate from south Piauí, south-east across Bahia and east to Alagoas; cearae from Ceará south through east Piauí to extreme north Bahia; and the newly described vielliardi from Colatina, Espírito Santo (Cleere and Nurney 1998) and Aimorés, Minas Gerais (Vasconcelos and Lins 1999).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as poorly known and probably not very common (Cleere 1998).

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Ecology
The species largely prefers lowland deciduous forest especially with open sandy areas (Stattersfield et al. 1998), although the newly described subspecies vielliardi occurs in rocky areas (Cleere and Nurney 1998).

Threats
Caatinga habitats have suffered markedly from agricultural expansion, grazing and burning since the late 18th century (Stattersfield et al. 1998). The level of general disturbance has further increased in the last 30 years since the arrival in the area of the Brazilian oil company, Petrobrás, which has improved access, permitting an influx of settlers and relocation of many families by government agencies (Hart 1991, Stattersfield et al. 1998).

References
Cleere, N.; Nurney, D. 1998. Nightjars: a guide to nightjars and related nightbirds. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, U.K.

Hart, J. K. 1991. Conservation of the Lear's Macaw: management of an endangered species. In: Clinton-Eitniear, J. (ed.), Proceedings of the First Mesoamerican Workshop on the Conservation and Management of Macaws, pp. 48-51. Center for the Study of Tropical Birds, Inc., San Antonio, Texas.

Ribon, R. 1995. A new subspecies of Caprimulgus (Linnaeus) (Aves, Caprimulgidae) from Espírito Santo, Brazil. Revista Brasileira de Zoologia 12(2): 333-337.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Caprimulgus hirundinaceus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Caprimulgidae (Nightjars)
Species name author Spix, 1825
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 678,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species