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Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa
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Justification
This species has not been recorded with certainty since 1876, despite a number of searches, and it may have been severely impacted by hunting and habitat degradation. However, it probably remains extant, because thorough surveys are still required, and the species may be difficult to detect (favouring dense grass and being reluctant to fly). In addition, there is a recent set of possible sightings around Naini Tal in 2003. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
25 cm. Rather nondescript quail with red bill and legs. Male greyish overall, with black face and throat and white forehead and narrow supercilium. Female has dark-marked brown upperparts, buffish head-sides and underparts and contrasting dark mask and dark streaks on breast to vent. Similar spp. Female primarily told from other quails by combination of size, red bill and legs and heavy underpart streaking. Voice Shrill whistle.

Distribution and population
Ophrysia superciliosa is known only from the western Himalayas in Uttaranchal, north-western India, where about a dozen specimens were collected near Mussooree and Naini Tal prior to 1877. Field observations during the mid-19th century suggest that it may have been relatively common, but it was certainly rare by the late 1800s, potentially indicating a population decline. The lack of confirmed records since then suggests that the species may now be extinct. However, there have been few well-organised searches, there were possible sightings near Suwakholi in 1984 (Negi 2006) and around Naini Tal in 2003, and a female was reported by a hunter in 2010 (H. S. Baral in litt. 2010). There is still reason to hope that a small population survives in remoter areas of the lower or middle Himalayan range, especially given the difficulty in detecting similar species.

Population justification
The population is assumed to be tiny (fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals) based on a paucity of specimens, and the failure of recent targeted surveys in recording evidence of the species.

Ecology
It was recorded in long grass and scrub on steep hillsides, particularly south-facing slope crests, between 1,650 m and 2,400 m. Generally encountered in coveys of 6-12 birds, it was extremely elusive, never flying except when almost stepped on. It was unclear whether it is sedentary or a short-distance migrant. It was only recorded around Mussoorie and Naini Tal hill stations during the winter months, suggesting it may breed at higher altitudes. A recent possible sighting by a local man was made in a wheat field near riparian pine forest (Baral et al. in prep.).


Threats
The species was last seen 60 years before independence, indicating that hunting levels during the colonial period contributed significantly to its decline. Widespread land-use changes thereafter, particularly open cast mining for limestone and related disturbance, are other likely contributory factors to its decline. Its contact call was apparently heard frequently in November and appears to have aided hunters to locate them. It is also hypothesised that habitat changes at lower elevations during the post-Pleistocene glaciation might have pushed subpopulations to suboptimal higher elevations, causing local extinctions.

Conservation Actions Underway
There have been a number of official and unofficial attempts to rediscover the species, covering some of the most suitable areas around Mussoorie and Naini Tal. However, none has yet been successful. In 2002 and 2010, surveys used posters, interviews with locals and habitat analyses to direct field searches, but failed to find definitive evidence of the species (Kalsi 2004, H. S. Baral in litt. 2010). Further surveys involving local communities are planned (M. M. Ghate in litt. 2010). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys in areas supporting Cheer Pheasant Catreus wallichi, which has similar habitat requirements. Conduct interviews with local hunters, involving the state Forest Department, about possible locations for the species. Based on these interviews, continue a comprehensive series of field surveys, including in the vicinity of old sites (Budraj, Benog, Jharipani and Sher-ka-danda), over several seasons and following up recent local reports near Naini Tal. Provide posters and cash incentives to local people to stimulate search for the species (Baral et al. in prep.).


References
Baral, H. S.; Basnet, S.; Chaudhary, H.; Chaudhary, B.; Timsina, A.; Bidari, K. In prep. Search for a lost species Himalayan Quail Ophrysia superciliosa in the midhills of the far west Nepal.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Kalsi, R. 2004. Survey and status of Himalayan Quail (Ophrysia superciliosa) in India: interim report.

Keane, A.M.; Carroll, J. P.; Fuller, R. A.; McGowan, P.J. K. in press. Partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks, guineafowl and turkeys: status survey and conservation action plan 2005-2009. IUCN and WPA, Gland, Switzerland.

Negi, I. S. 2006. Is Mountain Quail extinct? Cheetal 45(3&4): 48-51.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Davidson, P., Keane, A., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Khwaja, N., Martin, R

Contributors
Baral, H., Ghate, M., Kalsi, R.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ophrysia superciliosa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Himalayan quail (Ophrysia superciliosa) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Critically Endangered
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author (Gray, 1846)
Population size 1-49 mature individuals
Population trend Unknown
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,600 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species