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Ferruginous Partridge Caloperdix oculeus
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This enigmatic species is rarely encountered in much of its range, which has suffered extensive forest loss over the past few decades. This forest loss, accompanied by trapping pressure, is on-going and the species is thought to be undergoing a moderately rapid population reduction; it therefore qualifies as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Taxonomic note
Gender agreement of species name follows David and Gosselin (2002b).

Caloperdix oculea Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Caloperdix oculea BirdLife International (2004), Caloperdix oculea BirdLife International (2000)

Distribution and population
Caloperdix oculeus ranges from south-eastern Myanmar and south-western Thailand through Peninsular Malaysia onto Sumatra, Indonesia, with isolated populations in Borneo in northern Sarawak and eastern Sabah, Malaysia. It is generally scarce throughout its range, although it can be locally moderately common, e.g. in the Kandang River area, Jambi, Sumatra (I. Mauro in litt. 2003), and is likely to be declining overall.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as very rare in southern Thailand (Madge and McGowan 2002).

Trend justification
There are no data on population trends, but the species is likely to be in decline at a moderately rapid rate, owing primarily to habitat loss and degradation, and to some extent trapping pressure.

This species inhabits evergreen and semi-evergreen rainforests, including swampy areas, dry hill forest and secondary forest with sufficient bamboo. It has been recorded to 1,200 m.

Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia and Malaysia has been extensive (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors, including the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998). Declines driven by habitat loss and degradation are compounded by trapping for the cage-bird industry. However, the species's use of secondary growth and higher elevations implies that it is not immediately threatened.

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to assess the size of all sub-populations. Regularly monitor trends in all sub-populations. Asses the effect of hunting on populations. Protect large areas of forest in areas where it occurs.

BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Madge, S.; McGowan, P. 2002. Pheasants, partridges and grouse: including buttonquails, sandgrouse and allies. Christopher Helm, London.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Mahood, S., Taylor, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Caloperdix oculeus. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author (Temminck, 1815)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 422,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species