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LC
Tawny-browed Owl Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana

Justification
This species has a very large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence <20,000 km2 combined with a declining or fluctuating range size, habitat extent/quality, or population size and a small number of locations or severe fragmentation). The population trend appears to be stable, and hence the species does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population trend criterion (>30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size has not been quantified, but it is not believed to approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (<10,000 mature individuals with a continuing decline estimated to be >10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Distribution and population
This species is endemic to the southern Atlantic forest of east Paraguay, extreme north-east Argentina (Misiones) and south Brazil (from Espírito Santo south to Santa Catarina). In Paraguay, the species's range is largely restricted to the Parana watershed, where virtually no forest cover now remains outside of a few poorly protected reserves. In Brazil the species is common in Sao Paulo (F. Olmos in litt. 2003), it is also common in Argentina (M. Pearman in litt. 2003), and has been recorded from seven Misiones departments (Chebez 1996) and may occur in others.

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996). However, in Brazil the species is common in Sao Paulo (F. Olmos in litt. 2003), it is also common in Argentina (M. Pearman in litt. 2003), and has been recorded from seven Misiones departments (Chebez 1996) and may occur in others.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be stable in the absence of evidence for any declines or substantial threats.

Ecology
The species is found in both lowland and montane humid forest to 1,500 m, but has been recorded from degraded and marginal forest (del Hoyo et al. 1999).

Threats
Populations may have decreased in Argentina as a result of timber-cutting (Holt et al. 1999). However, in Brazil the species appears to tolerate a significant level of habitat alteration (F. Olmos in litt. 2003).

References
Chebez, J. C. 1996. Misiones fauna: a systematic and zoogeographical catalogue of the vertebrate fauna of the Province of Misiones, Argentina. Literature of Latin America, Buenos Aires.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1999. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Holt, D. W.; Berkley, R.; Deppe, C.; Enriquez Rocha, P. L.; Olsen, P. D.; Petersen, J. L.; Rangel Salazar, J. L.; Segars, K. P.; Wood, K. L. 1999. Strigidae (typical owls). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 76-242. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M., Fisher, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Strigidae (Owls)
Species name author (Bertoni & Bertoni, 1901)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 502,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species