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Eurasian Eagle-owl Bubo bubo

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type   Average mass -


  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 32,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 32,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor Estimated 2009
Population trend Decreasing -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.1 - - -
Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 19,000-38,000 breeding pairs, equating to 57,000-114,000 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 5-24% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 250,000-2,500,000 individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in China; c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Korea; < c.100 breeding pairs in Japan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs in Russia (Brazil 2009).
Trend justification: The population is suspected to be in decline owing to human persecution (del Hoyo et al. 1999).

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan Native Extant      
Albania Native Extant Yes    
Andorra Native Extant      
Armenia Native Extant Yes    
Austria Native Extant      
Azerbaijan Native Extant      
Bahrain Vagrant Extant   Yes  
Belarus Native Extant      
Belgium Native Extant      
Bosnia and Herzegovina Native Extant Yes    
Bulgaria Native Extant      
China (mainland) Native Extant Yes    
Croatia Native Extant      
Czech Republic Native Extant      
Denmark Native Extant      
Estonia Native Extant      
Finland Native Extant      
France Native Extant      
Georgia Native Extant Yes    
Germany Native Extant Yes    
Gibraltar (to UK) Vagrant Extant      
Greece Native Extant      
Hong Kong (China) Native Extant Yes    
Hungary Native Extant      
India Native Extant Yes    
Iran, Islamic Republic of Native Extant      
Iraq Native Extant      
Israel Native Extant Yes    
Italy Native Extant      
Japan Native Extant Yes    
Kazakhstan Native Extant Yes    
Kyrgyzstan Native Extant Yes    
Latvia Native Extant      
Lebanon Native Extant      
Liechtenstein Native Extant      
Lithuania Native Extant      
Luxembourg Native Extant      
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Native Extant      
Moldova Native Extant Yes    
Mongolia Native Extant Yes    
Montenegro Native Extant Yes    
Netherlands Native Extant      
North Korea Native Extant Yes    
Norway Native Extant Yes    
Pakistan Native Extant Yes    
Palestinian Authority Territories Native Extant      
Poland Native Extant Yes    
Portugal Native Extant      
Romania Native Extant      
Russia (Asian) Native Extant Yes    
Russia (Central Asian) Native Extant      
Russia (European) Native Extant      
Serbia Native Extant Yes    
Slovakia Native Extant      
Slovenia Native Extant      
South Korea Native Extant Yes    
Spain Native Extant      
Sweden Native Extant      
Switzerland Native Extant      
Syria Native Extant      
Tajikistan Native Extant Yes    
Turkey Native Extant      
Turkmenistan Native Extinct Yes    
Ukraine Native Extant      
Uzbekistan Native Extant Yes    

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Armenia Khosrov Reserve site factsheet
Armenia Noravank site factsheet
Austria Kaisergebirge site factsheet
Austria Karwendel site factsheet
Austria Lower Kamp valley site factsheet
Austria Middle Kamp valley site factsheet
Austria Styrian Enns valley site factsheet
Austria Thermenlinie site factsheet
Austria Wachau site factsheet
Belarus Al'manskija baloty site factsheet
Belarus Balota Zvaniec site factsheet
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča site factsheet
Belarus Mid Prypiac' site factsheet
Belarus Sialiec site factsheet
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse site factsheet
Belgium Haute Meuse site factsheet
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake site factsheet
Bulgaria Devetashko Plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Dobrostan site factsheet
Bulgaria Karlukovski Karst site factsheet
Bulgaria Ponor site factsheet
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau site factsheet
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets site factsheet
Bulgaria Studenets site factsheet
Bulgaria Suha Reka site factsheet
Bulgaria Vrachanski Balkan site factsheet
Bulgaria Western Balkan site factsheet
Czech Republic Broumovsko site factsheet
Czech Republic Doupov hills site factsheet
Czech Republic Krivoklatsko (Krivoklatsko region) site factsheet
Czech Republic Krkonose mountains (Giant mountains) site factsheet
Czech Republic Labské pískovce sandstones site factsheet
Czech Republic Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest) site factsheet
Czech Republic The valley of the Otava a Vltava rivers site factsheet
Czech Republic Trebonsko (Trebon region) site factsheet
Estonia Lahemaa site factsheet
Estonia Muraka site factsheet
Estonia Nätsi-Võlla site factsheet
Estonia Nõva-Osmussaar site factsheet
Estonia Väinameri site factsheet
Finland Juortanansalo site factsheet
Finland Lake Pihlajavesi site factsheet
Finland Luoto archipelago site factsheet
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi site factsheet
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira site factsheet
France Basses Corbières site factsheet
France Chaîne des Alpilles site factsheet
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants site factsheet
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte site factsheet
France Haut Val d'Allier site factsheet
France Hautes Corbières site factsheet
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais site factsheet
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes site factsheet
France Les Couzes Nord site factsheet
France Les Couzes Sud site factsheet
France Massif du Petit Lubéron site factsheet
France Minervois site factsheet
France Montagne de la Clape site factsheet
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire site factsheet
France Parc National de la Vanoise site factsheet
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes site factsheet
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire site factsheet
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinous gorge site factsheet
Greece Nestos gorge site factsheet
Greece Protected area of Dadia-Lefkimi-Soufli forest site factsheet
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture site factsheet
Hungary Bodrogzug–Taktaköz site factsheet
Hungary Mátra site factsheet
Hungary Zemplén Mountains site factsheet
Latvia Engure lake site factsheet
Latvia Gauja national park site factsheet
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park site factsheet
Luxembourg Dudelange Haard site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Lake Tikvesh site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Pchinja-river Petroshnica-river Kriva Reka site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Radika catchment site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of River Topolka-river Babuna-river Bregalnica site factsheet
Macedonia, the former Yugoslav Republic of Shar Planina Mountain site factsheet
Poland Biebrza river valley site factsheet
Poland Bieszczady Mountains site factsheet
Poland Drawa River Site site factsheet
Poland Forest at Drawa River site factsheet
Poland Forest at Gwda River site factsheet
Poland Middle part of Tuchola forest site factsheet
Poland Parczew forests site factsheet
Poland Slonne Mountains site factsheet
Poland Solska Forest site factsheet
Poland Sudety Wałbrzysko-Kamiennogorskie Mountains site factsheet
Poland Tuchola Forest site factsheet
Portugal Côa valley site factsheet
Portugal Gerês mountains site factsheet
Portugal Malcata mountains site factsheet
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains site factsheet
Portugal Mourão, Moura e Barrancos site factsheet
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão site factsheet
Portugal Sabôr and Maçãs site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Monchique site factsheet
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões site factsheet
Portugal Serra do Caldeirão site factsheet
Portugal Serras do Alvão e Marão site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys site factsheet
Portugal Upper River Tejo site factsheet
Romania Almăjului Mountains - Locvei site factsheet
Romania Bârnova woodland site factsheet
Romania Bicaz gorge and Hăşmaş Mountains site factsheet
Romania Bogata forest site factsheet
Romania Domogled - Cernei valley site factsheet
Romania Metaliferi Mountains site factsheet
Romania Nerei gorge - Beuşniţa site factsheet
Romania Padiş - Vlădeasa mountain site factsheet
Romania Retezat Mountains site factsheet
Romania Trascău Mountains site factsheet
Russia (European) Kargopol' area site factsheet
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain site factsheet
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Ai river site factsheet
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river site factsheet
Russia (European) Tsimlyanskiye sands site factsheet
Serbia Prokletije site factsheet
Serbia Sara mountain site factsheet
Serbia Sicevo gorge site factsheet
Serbia Stara mountain-Vidlic site factsheet
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka site factsheet
Slovakia Horna Orava site factsheet
Slovakia Malá Fatra site factsheet
Slovakia Nízke Tatry site factsheet
Slovakia Slanské hills site factsheet
Slovakia Strazovske hills site factsheet
Slovenia Karst site factsheet
Slovenia Vipavski rob site factsheet
Spain Alcarama mountain and Alhama river site factsheet
Spain Arnedillo-Isasa crag site factsheet
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle site factsheet
Spain Bardenas Reales site factsheet
Spain Burete, Cambrón and Espuña mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Cardó, Tivissa and Llabería mountains site factsheet
Spain Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Cortados del Jarama site factsheet
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas site factsheet
Spain El Valle, Altaona and Escalona mountains site factsheet
Spain Espadán mountain range site factsheet
Spain Gorges of Iregua, Leza and Jubera site factsheet
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain La Almenara mountain range-Cape Cope site factsheet
Spain La Safor and North Alicante mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Lower course of the river Huerva site factsheet
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja site factsheet
Spain María mountain range-Los Vélez site factsheet
Spain Monfragüe site factsheet
Spain Montagut and Montmell mountains site factsheet
Spain Montsant and Prades mountains site factsheet
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata site factsheet
Spain Mountains of Barcelona site factsheet
Spain Obarenes mountains site factsheet
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain site factsheet
Spain Prelittoral mountain ranges of Granada site factsheet
Spain Rivers Cabriel and Júcar canyons site factsheet
Spain San Pedro mountain range site factsheet
Spain Tiermes-Caracena site factsheet
Spain Toledo mountains-Cabañeros site factsheet
Spain Torrecilla and Gigante mountain ranges site factsheet
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos site factsheet
Sweden Hanveden-Hemfosa site factsheet
Sweden Stigfjorden fjord site factsheet
Sweden Tarnan-Riala forest site factsheet
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains site factsheet
Ukraine Gorgany site factsheet
Ukraine Orikhivski lake-system site factsheet
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley site factsheet
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes site factsheet
Ukraine Syra Pogonya mire site factsheet
Ukraine Uzh river valley site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable resident
Caves and Subterranean Habitats (non-aquatic) Caves suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable resident
Forest Temperate suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Temperate suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 4500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  


Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Medicine Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Bubo bubo. Downloaded from on 11/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 11/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Least Concern
Family Strigidae (Owls)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 32,000,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species