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Collared Partridge Arborophila gingica

Justification
This species has been downlisted to Near Threatened because published survey results indicate that it it more widely distributed than previously thought, necessitating an upwards revision of the population estimate, which is now estimated to be moderately small. On-going habitat loss and degradation, as well as hunting pressure, are still thought to be driving a continuing decline in the population.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
25-30 cm. Typical, generally grey-brown, partridge with distinct head and breast patterning. Male has striking white forehead and greyish supercilium, black-spotted chestnut crown and nape, buffish-yellow throat and diagnostic black above narrow white above chestnut bands across lower throat/upper breast. Female smaller with chestnut (not black) and white undertail-coverts. Similar spp. Chinese Bamboo Partridge Bambusicola thoracica is larger and longer-tailed with rufous face and throat, broad grey supercilium and bold, dark breast-side and flank spotting. Voice Territorial call far-carrying series of plaintive, two-note whistles, repeated regularly, often in duet.

Distribution and population
Arborophila gingica is endemic to south-eastern China, having been recorded in Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi and Guangdong. There have been a limited number of studies of its population size and distribution, but available data reveal considerable variation in population densities in different parts of its range: from 0.31 individuals/km2 in parts of Guangdong and Zhejiang (Zheng Guangmei and Wang Qishan 1998) to 8-10 individuals/km2 at 900-1200 m in Longqishan (Mt. Longqi) at Jiangle in Fujian (He et al. 2007). This variation can partly be explained by altitudinal variation, but also likely differences in habitat and observer effort. It is considered rare in parts of its range, and remaining populations are severely fragmented as most forest cover has been lost, with on-going declines likely; however, it is still locally common in Fujian (He et al. 2007).

Population justification
Brazil (2009) estimated the population density at 2 to 8-10/km2 in different parts of this species's range. A precautionary population estimate of c.2,500-10,000 individuals was derived from this, assuming suspected low densities in large parts of its range and an estimated Area of Occupancy of less than 10% of the known range size (i.e. formerly c.30,000 km2), owing to severe habitat fragmentation. This equates to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. However, the species's known range has since increased markedly, thus it is now placed in the band for 10,000-19,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The species is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, in line with the on-going loss and fragmentation of its habitat and because of hunting pressure.

Ecology
Its typical habitats are broadleaf, mixed broadleaf and coniferous forest, bamboo and scrub, probably ranging from 150 m to 1,900 m (He Fen-qi et al. 2007). It is confined to densely forested areas, where it stays on the ground in thick undergrowth during the day, but roosts communally in trees.

Threats
This species is threatened mainly as a result of the continuing loss and fragmentation of its habitat, as most forest has been cleared or modified as a result of the demands for agricultural land and timber. Road construction and mining projects also result in habitat loss and fragmentation (Zhou Fang in litt. 2012). Illegal hunting for food and market trading is also a major threat. In addition, it is thought to be negatively affected by disturbance caused through the gathering of non-timber forest products. Increased tourist traffic at nature reserves has also resulted in greater disturbance and necessitated the construction of more infrastructure for visitors (Zhou Fang in litt. 2012).


Conservation Actions Underway
There are many protected areas in or near to its range, but most of these reserves are relatively small and isolated, and it is not clear how many of them contain large enough areas of suitable forest to support viable populations. Furthermore, conservation management is often weak within these protected areas (J. Fellowes in litt. 2007). The large Wuyishan Nature Reserve in Fujian (565 km2) and Jiangxi (160 km2) is likely to be especially important for its long-term survival (Liang Wei in litt. 2004). Conservation Actions Proposed
Advocate listing as a nationally protected species in China. Conduct studies of its habitat requirements. Conduct surveys in protected areas throughout its range, to determine which of them support significant populations. Help develop appropriate management practices in protected areas to better protect closed-canopy forest and enforce the hunting ban. If required, propose the designation of new protected areas.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Brazil, M. 2009. Birds of East Asia: eastern China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, eastern Russia. Christopher Helm, London.

He Fen-qi; Jiang Hang-dong; Lin Jian-sheng. 2007. The occurrence of the White-necklaced Partridge in Fujian of SE China. Chinese Journal of Zoology 42(4): 147-148.

Keane, A.M.; Carroll, J. P.; Fuller, R. A.; McGowan, P.J. K. in press. Partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks, guineafowl and turkeys: status survey and conservation action plan 2005-2009. IUCN and WPA, Gland, Switzerland.

Zheng Guangmei; Wang Qishan. 1998. China Red Data Book of endangered animals: Aves. Science Press, Beijing.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Keane, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Zhou, F., Fellowes, J., He, F., Wei, L., Zhang, Z.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Arborophila gingica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - White-necklaced partridge (Arborophila gingica) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author (Gmelin, 1789)
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 396,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species