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Javan Scops-owl Otus angelinae

Justification
This small owl qualifies for Vulnerable because its small range is undergoing contraction and increasing fragmentation through habitat loss, a factor that implies reductions in its small population. However, its silent, nocturnal habits and unobtrusive behaviour may have resulted in it being consistently under-recorded. Additional locality records and population data may require a reassessment of its threat status.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
16-18 cm. Small, rufous-brown, forest-dwelling owl. Rusty-brown facial disc, with prominent white eyebrows extending into ear-tufts. Rufous-brown upperparts, often with buffy or whitish (and distinctly black-tipped) collar and whitish scapular stripe. Whitish or creamy underparts. Golden-yellow iris. Similar spp. Sunda Scops-owl O. lempiji is slightly larger with generally greyer facial disc, buffy eyebrows, brown or orange iris and different call. Voice Usually silent, but gives explosive poo-poo in alarm and (especially young birds) prolonged hissing contact note. Hints Possibly most easily found by listening for hissing or wailing of fledglings.

Distribution and population
Otus angelinae is endemic to the island of Java, Indonesia, where it is known from seven mountains, although there are recent records from only three (BirdLife International 2001). Most recent records come from Gunung Gede-Pangrango, where it is regarded as still fairly common (N. Brickle in litt. 2012). An evaluation of records and museum/zoo specimens, coupled with its reputed silence, suggests it may be more numerous and widespread than available evidence shows.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This poorly known species may be more common than available data suggest. However, owing to forest loss within its range, it is suspected to be declining, although the likely rate has not been estimated.

Ecology
It inhabits tropical upper montane forest between 1,000 m and 2,000 m. Observations suggest a breeding territory size of very roughly 50 ha. Fledged young have been recorded in February, June and July, indicating egg-laying in at least May and December. It is presumed to be resident, perhaps making some altitudinal movements.

Threats
The main threat is from forest loss, degradation and fragmentation through widespread agricultural encroachment by shifting cultivators. Localised development (e.g. for holiday resorts and geothermal projects) is probably becoming an increasing threat in the lower part of its altitudinal range (1,000-1,500 m), particularly on unprotected mountain slopes. The area above this zone is still relatively secure.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The species has been recorded recently in two protected areas, Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Park and Gunung Halimun Nature Reserve. These two areas cover over 500 km2 of forest between 500 m and 3,000 m. Nature Reserves exist on Gunung Tangkuban Prahu and Gunung Ijen, from where there are historical records. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct extensive nocturnal fieldwork (including mist-netting) on mountains throughout Java to establish its true range and population status, and discover what vocalisations might aid detection. Support proposals to gazette further montane protected areas, and campaign for the establishment of new reserves (including Gunung Salak and Gunung Ciremai) or extensions to existing reserves. Improve protected-area management. Initiate conservation-awareness programmes around Javan forests.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Taylor, J., Tobias, J., Allinson, T

Contributors
Brickle, N.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Otus angelinae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Javan scops-owl (Otus angelinae) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Strigidae (Typical Owls)
Species name author (Finsch, 1912)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 8,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species