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Sokoke Scops-owl Otus ireneae

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered B1ab(ii,iii,v) 
Vulnerable B1ab(ii,iii,v);C2a(ii) 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2006 Endangered
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 640 medium
Number of locations 5 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 good Estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing good -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-10000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.7 - - -
Population justification: In Arabuko-Sokoke, a population of c.1,000 pairs (stable between 1984 and 1998) occurs in c.220 km2 of forest. In the East Usambaras, there are c.97 km2 of suitable habitat and densities range from less than 1.5 pairs/km2 up to 3-4 pairs/km2, suggesting a population in the low hundreds. The total population is estimated to number at least 2,500 individuals and is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.
Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be declining in line with habitat degradation within its range. Unsustainable removal of large Brachylaena trees, which were thought to be its main resource for nest-cavities, was suspected to be critical, but there may now be few if any of these trees remaining in Arabuko-Sokoke. Playback surveys in 2005 and 2008, and compared with data from 1993, suggest that the species may have undergone declines of 22.5 % in 16 years in Arabuko-Sokoke (Virani et al. 2010).The likely overall rate of population decline over three generations has not been estimated.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Kenya Native Extant       Yes
Tanzania Native Extant       Yes

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Kenya Arabuko-Sokoke Forest site factsheet
Tanzania East Usambara Mountains site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Otus ireneae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 31/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Strigidae (Typical Owls)
Species name author Ripley, 1966
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 640 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species