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White-fronted Scops-owl Otus sagittatus

Justification
This poorly known species has a small, rapidly declining, severely fragmented population which is dependent on lowland or foothill forest, much of which has been destroyed or degraded within its range. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
27-29 cm. Medium-sized, long-tailed scops-owl. Dark rufous to rufous-chestnut upperside, broad whitish forehead-patch and eyebrows, extending to ear-tufts. Underparts have dark vermiculations, white markings and dark spots. Bluish-white bill, dark brown iris. Similar spp. Reddish Scops-owl O. rufescens is smaller, darker with dark bars on primaries. Voice A hollow, monotone, whistled hoooo has been attributed to it, but it appears to call rarely.

Distribution and population
Otus sagittatus is known from Tenasserim, Myanmar, south-west Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia (BirdLife International 2001). It appears to be locally distributed and scarce throughout its range. However, its true status is unclear as it is difficult to detect and it may be more common than records suggest.

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
Forest loss throughout this species's range has been rapid; hence, this forest specialist is suspected to be declining rapidly as well. However, the species remains very poorly known and more accurate studies are required.

Ecology
It is resident and nocturnal in old-growth and regenerating evergreen or mixed deciduous forests of level lowlands and hill-slopes to at least 700 m. Limited mist-netting data indicates that it sometimes frequents dense or open lower storeys of mature forest, but may not inhabit recently logged forest. In Malaysia and Thailand, the breeding season is apparently February-March. Insects, chiefly moths, are its only documented food items.

Threats
If this species is a lowland forest specialist, extensive lowland forest loss, degradation and fragmentation, primarily through logging, development and conversion for agriculture, pose the greatest threats across its range.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs in several protected areas, including Kaeng Krachan National Park, Huai Kha Khaeng, Khlong Saeng, Hala-Bala and Khao Banthad Wildlife Sanctuaries, Thailand and Pasoh Forest Reserve, Malaysia. It probably occurs in the recently established Myinmoletkat Biosphere Reserve, Myanmar. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct playback and mist-netting surveys across its range to establish its distribution, status and habitat requirements. Afford effective protection to all forest in relevant protected areas. Campaign for reduced deforestation of lowlands in southern Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Davidson, P., Peet, N., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.

Contributors
Bakewell, D.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Otus sagittatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - White-fronted scops-owl (Otus sagittatus) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Strigidae (Typical Owls)
Species name author (Cassin, 1848)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 149,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species