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Madagascar Red Owl Tyto soumagnei

Justification
This species qualifies as Vulnerable as its population is presumed to be small and declining owing to the destruction and severe fragmentation of its rainforest habitat.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
30 cm. Medium-sized owl. Variable rich orange-buff upperparts (including crown), marked with sparse black spots especially on crown, coverts and flight feathers. Rather uniform pale orange underparts, with paler facial ruff and belly. Pale bill, grey legs. Similar spp. From Barn Owl T. alba by smaller size, rounder facial disk, overall rich orange colouration (especially on breast). Voice Call usually strongly descending in tone (like T. alba).

Distribution and population
Tyto soumagnei occurs in the eastern rainforest of Madagascar, where it was formerly known from between Amber Mountain in the far north to Mantadia National Park in the centre-east, before a further site (Kalambatritra) was located 500 km further south of its previously known range (Irwin and Samonds 2002). More recently, the species was found in the extreme south-east of Madagascar, in the lowlands of Tsitongambarika, extending its presumed range considerably (R. Thorstrom and L-A. Rene de Roland in litt. 2007; R. Safford in litt. 2007). It is probably present in all suitably large blocks of humid evergreen forest in the east and north of Madagascar, but its nocturnal habits make it difficult to detect. Future surveys may reveal it to be less rare than currently thought (Morris and Hawkins 1998; ZICOMA 1999), and has been found to be common at Bemanevika New Protected Area at 1,500-1,650 m (L-A. Rene de Roland in litt. 2012).

Population justification
A conservative estimate of primary rainforest cover in Madagascar is c.40,000 km2 so even at 0.1 individuals/km2 a low population estimate would be 4,000 individuals (F. Hawkins in litt. 2009). It is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals, equating to 3,750-14,999 individuals, which is rounded to 3,500-15,000 individuals here.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be declining at an unquantified rate owing to the destruction and degradation of its habitat through clearance for subsistence cultivation, commercial logging, and uncontrolled fires. An increasing human population is putting pressure on the remaining habitat (Du Puy and Moat 1996).

Ecology
The species occurs in and adjacent to humid evergreen forest from sea level to 2,000 m (Morris and Hawkins 1998; ZICOMA 1999), but has also been recorded in an area dominated by dry deciduous forest (van Esbroeck 2006; Cardiff and Goodman 2008). It hunts at night in somewhat open areas in or near primary forest, perching in trees at the forest edge. Although formerly believed to occur only in undisturbed rainforest (Langrand 1990), it has been recorded in degraded/secondary forest-edge vegetation and also hunts over open, human-altered habitat adjacent to forest, including rice-paddies and slash-and-burn cultivation (Thorstrom and de Roland 1997; Thorstrom et al. 1997), and it may require both forest and open areas (and so may be absent from large areas of forest interior; S. Mitchell in litt. 2009). In Masoala it ranged over 210 ha (Thorstrom et al. 1997). Its diet is predominantly small native mammals, in contrast to T. alba which feeds mostly on introduced rat Rattus species (Goodman and Thorstrom 1998) outside primary forest. Tsingy tufted-tailed rats Eliurus antsingy constituted almost 50% of total prey mass of birds in dry forest at Ankarana (northern Madagascar), and birds here also consumed insects, frogs and geckos (Cardiff and Goodman 2008). Birds have been recorded roosting on rock ledges and in cave entrances (van Esbroeck 2006; Cardiff and Goodman 2008). The first nest recorded by scientists was found in September 1995, 23 m above ground, in a natural tree-cavity in an isolated native tree Weinmannia, 500 m from the edge of the main forest block; clutch-size was probably two (two young successfully fledged) (Thorstrom and de Roland 1997). The species may have been overlooked previously for three reasons: a) it is reclusive and strictly nocturnal; b) it is mistaken for Tyto alba; and c) it occurs patchily and at low densities (Irwin and Samonds 2002; R. Thorstrom and L-A. Rene de Roland in litt. 2007).

Threats
Deforestation, mainly for subsistence slash-and-burn cultivation but also for commercial logging, continues to destroy the species's main evergreen forest habitat. Uncontrolled use of fire, often as a result of poor farming practices, is also a major cause of deforestation. Much of the eastern coastal plain has either already been cleared or is covered by highly degraded forest, remaining habitat is under pressure from the increasing human population (Du Puy and Moat 1996).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. Several sites where it has been recorded are protected areas - Mantadia National Park, Marotandrano Special Reserve, Masoala National Park, Montagne d'Ambre National Park, Tsaratanana Strict Reserve and Zahamena National Park - where it probably occurs at low density (ZICOMA 1999). Four individuals are being radio-tracked and monitored at Bemanevika New Protected Area (L-A. Rene de Roland in litt. 2012).Conservation Actions Proposed
Establish presence or absence at rainforest sites to the south of Mantadia, especially in Midongy-South, Ranomafana, Andringitra and Andohahela National Parks. Determine its habitat requirements for breeding and foraging, to clarify its population size. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.


References
Cardiff, S.G. and Goodman, S.M. 2008. Natural history of the red owl (Tyto soumagnei) in dry deciduous tropical forest in Madagascar. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(4): 891-897.

Collar, N. J.; Stuart, S. N. 1985. Threatened birds of Africa and related islands: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, and International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Cambridge, U.K.

Du Puy, D. J.; Moat, J. 1996. A refined classification of the primary vegetation of Madagascar based on the underlying geology: using GIS to map its distribution and to assess its conservation status. In: Lourenço, W.R. (ed.), Proceedings of the International Symposium on the biogeography of Madagascar, pp. 205-218. ORSTOM, Paris.

Goodman, S. M.; Thorstrom, R. 1998. The diet of the Madagascar Red Owl (Tyto soumagnei) on the Masoala Peninsula, Madagascar. Wilson Bulletin 110: 417-421.

Harper, G. J.; Steininger, M. C.; Tucker, C. J.; Juhn, D.; Hawkins, F. 2007. Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environmental Conservation 34(4): 1-9.

Harper, G. J.; Steininger, M. C.; Tucker, C. J.; Juhn, D.; Hawkins, F. 2007. Fifty years of deforestation and forest fragmentation in Madagascar. Environmental Conservation 34(4): 1-9.

Irwin, M.T. and Samonds, K.E. 2002. Range extension of the Madagascar red owl Tyto soumagnei in Madagascar: the case of a rare, widespread species? Ibis 144(4): 680-683.

Langrand, O. 1990. Guide to the birds of Madagascar. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Morris, P.; Hawkins, F. 1998. Birds of Madagascar: a photographic guide. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Thorstrom, R.; de Roland, L. A. R. 1997. First nest record and nesting behaviour of the Madagascar Red Owl Tyto soumagnei. Ostrich 68: 42-43.

Thorstrom, R.; Hart, J.; Watson, R. T. 1997. New record, ranging behaviour, vocalization and food of the Madagascar Red Owl Tyto soumagnei. Ibis 139: 477-481.

van Esbroeck, J. 2006. Madagascar Red Owl Tyto soumagnei in Ankarana Special Reserve, Madagascar. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 13(2): 205-206.

ZICOMA. 1999. Zones d'Importance pour la Conservation des Oiseaux a Madagascar.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

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Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Evans, M., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Deliry, C., Hawkins, F., Mitchell, S., Réné De Roland, L., Safford, R., Thorstrom, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Tyto soumagnei. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Madagascar red owl (Tyto soumagnei) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Tytonidae (Barn-owls)
Species name author (Milne Edwards, 1878)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 52,200 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species