email a friend
printable version
VU
White-faced Partridge  Arborophila orientalis

Justification
This species occupies a small range, in which it is known from only a few locations, and there are on-going declines in the extent and quality of habitat owing primarily to logging and agricultural expansion. These threats, coupled with likely hunting pressure, suggest that the species is undergoing a rapid population decline. For all of these reasons the species is classified as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
Mees, G. F. 1996. Geographical variation in birds of Java. Publications of the Nuttall Ornithological Club 26(I-viii): 1-119.

Taxonomic note
Arborophila orientalis (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) has been split into A. orientalis, A. sumatrana, A. rolli and A. campbelli following Mees (1996), given a series of strong character differences be

Identification
c.28cm. Stocky, short-legged, forest-dwelling partridge. Generally grey, barred darker on lower back and tail, with blackish crown and nape, and conspicuous whitish forehead, cheeks and throat. Wings brownish with dark tips to inner wing feathers and rufous on flight feathers. Black bill and red legs. Reddish orbital skin. Voice Undocumented.

Distribution and population
Arborophila orientalis is apparently restricted to the eastern part of East Java, Indonesia, from the Yang Highlands eastwards, and thus occupies a range which historically covered only c.7,000 km2 and which today covers less than 2,500 km2. Its population was initially estimated at 1,000-10,000 individuals, but it has subsequently been found at several more sites and may considerably exceed this upper limit. The remaining area of suitable habitat suggests that a total of 11,000-28,000 pairs might still be present, but hunting pressure and variable habitat quality could mean that numbers are much lower than this (B. van Balen in litt. 2012). Its population is conservatively estimated to include 10,000-19,999 mature individuals.


Population justification
Its population was initially estimated at 1,000-10,000 individuals, but it has subsequently been found at several more sites and may considerably exceed this upper limit. It is restricted to two or three forest blocks, that total an absolute maximum of 225,000 ha of suitable habitat, which, considering home range sizes of c.8-20 ha found in other tropical partridges, suggests that a total of 11,000-28,000 pairs might still be present, but hunting pressure and variable habitat quality could mean that numbers are much lower than this (B. van Balen in litt. 2012). On the basis of this information, its population is conservatively estimated to include 10,000-19,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Remaining forest continues to face logging pressure and the clearance of fragments is commonplace, whilst the species may also suffer some amount of hunting pressure; hence, it is suspected to be declining rapidly overall.

Ecology
While data on this species are extremely scant, current information suggests that it is similar to its close congeners in that it frequents the interior of montane evergreen forest, from 500 m (but usually above 1,000 m) on mountains whose summits tend to be higher than 1,700 m. It is also probably relatively resilient to habitat degradation and hunting pressure, although this remains to be confirmed.

Threats
Most forest in the Yang Highlands has been cleared, while elsewhere in the range of this species degradation occurs along the edges of remaining blocks and clearance of fragments remains commonplace (owing to logging and agricultural encroachment), steadily reducing its habitat. Furthermore, partridges are frequently caught and eaten or traded by local people on Java (Nijman 2003). The combination of these factors is likely to be reducing its population quite rapidly.

Conservation Actions Underway
A game reserve (perhaps embracing 15 km2 of forest) has existed in the Yang Highlands since 1962, although this has proved an ineffective designation. It also occurs in Meru Betiri National Park and the Kawah Ijen Ungup-ungup Nature Reserve. There is a small captive population (c.20 birds) in Belgium. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct fieldwork to determine the range, altitudinal distribution, population density and ecological requirements of the species; in particular, carry out searches in the Gunung Raung and Gunung Maelang complexes and in the Yang Highlands. Establish the protection of the remaining forest on the Yang Highlands.

References
BirdLife International. 2001. Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Keane, A.M.; Carroll, J. P.; Fuller, R. A.; McGowan, P.J. K. in press. Partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks, guineafowl and turkeys: status survey and conservation action plan 2005-2009. IUCN and WPA, Gland, Switzerland.

Nijman, V. 2003. Distribution, habitat use and conservation of the endemic Chestnut-bellied Hill-partridge (Arborophila javanica) in fragmented forests of Java, Indonesia. Emu 103: 133-140.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species accounts from the Threatened birds of Asia: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 2001).

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Keane, A., Taylor, J., Tobias, J.

Contributors
Nijman, V., van Balen, B.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Arborophila orientalis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Phasianidae (Pheasants, Partridges, Turkeys, Grouse)
Species name author (Horsfield, 1821)
Population size 10000-19999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 10,800 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species