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Glow-throated Hummingbird Selasphorus ardens
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Justification
This species has been uplisted from Vulnerable because of a re-assessment of its subpopulation structure that indicates it is more susceptible to extinction than previously thought. It is listed as Endangered on the basis that its declining population is very small and forms a single subpopulation.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
7 cm. Tiny, distinctive hummingbird. Green above with bronze sheen. Dark primaries. Black tail with rufous edging. Pink-red gorget. Cinnamon below with white breast-band, central breast and belly. Short, straight black bill. Female has buff throat speckled grey. Rufous tail with green central rectrices, black subterminal band and buff tips. Immature like female but with rusty fringes to crown and nape feathers. Similar spp. Male Scintillant Hummingbird S. scintilla has red-orange gorget and rufous tail. Female S. scintilla is paler below and has more rufous edging on central rectrices.

Distribution and population
Selasphorus ardens is restricted to west and central Panama in the Serranía de Tabasará (eastern Chiriquí and Veraguas provinces) and possibly the highlands of the Azuero Peninsula. In Chiriquí, it has been recorded on Cerro Flores and Cerro Colorado (adjacent peaks in the Cerro Santiago massif), but recently only from Cerro Colorado (Ridgely and Gwynne 1989, Wege and Long 1995, Montañez 1999). In Veraguas, there are records from Cerro Tute (a few sightings in the 1980s), Calovévora (presumably Pico Calovevora just north of Santa Fe) and an unnamed locality (possibly Santa Fe itself) in the Santa Fe area (Stiles 1983). It is poorly known, seemingly uncommon and difficult to locate, perhaps increasingly so (W. Porteous in litt. 1999), but this may be confounded by seasonal migrations (G. Angehr in litt. 2007). In 1994, Selasphorus hummingbirds were mist-netted and a specimen taken on Cerro Hoya, in the Azuero Peninsula, Los Santos (Engleman 1994). These records probably refer to this species, but there is some doubt concerning their identification (Engleman 1994, G. R. Angehr in litt. 1998, 1999).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to on-going habitat loss and degradation, although the likely rate has not been estimated.

Ecology
This species is found mainly in shrubby growth in clearings and forest borders at elevations of 750-1,850 m. It is not thought able to persist in areas where forest has been completely cleared (G. Angehr in litt. 2013).


Threats
Although the species can survive in disturbed and secondary forest, it probably cannot if the forest is completely removed for pasture (G. Angehr in litt. 2013). Forest in eastern Chiriquí is becoming fragmented, and the Serranía de Tabasará is generally threatened by subsistence agriculture, clearance for coffee plantations, cattle-grazing, over-use of pesticides and fires (Alvarez-Cordero et al. 1994, G. Angehr in litt. 2007). Deforestation for subsistence agriculture is severely affecting the core of the species's range in the area of Cerro Santiago (G. Angehr in litt. 2007, G. Angehr in litt. 2013).


Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Santa Fe National Park was established in 2001 and protects part of the species's range, but it still has inadequate staff and resources (G. Angehr in litt. 2007). The Panama Audubon Society has opened discussions with communities in the Ngobe-Bugle Comarca (Indigenous Homeland) with regard to protection of the region of Cerro Santiago (G. Angehr in litt. 2007). Cerro Hoya National Park protects the possible population on the Azuero Peninsula (Wege and Long 1995, Angehr and Jordán 1998). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to clarify its actual distribution and abundance. Study its habitat requirements. Determine the identity of the birds on the Azuero Peninsula. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation within its range. Establish a protected area around Cerro Santiago and neighbouring peaks (G. Angehr in litt. 2007).

References
Alvarez-Cordero, E.; de Samudio, J.; Marquez Reyes, C.; Ellis, S. 1994. Conservation assessment and management plan workshop for bird and mammal species endemic to Panama. International Union for Nature Conservation and Natural Resources, Apple Valley, MN.

Angehr, G. R.; Jordan, O. 1998. Report on the Panama Important Bird Areas program. Panama Audubon Society/BirdLife International, Ancon, Panamá.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Engleman, D. 1994. The field editor's report. Toucan 20: 4-5.

Montañez, D. 1999. PAS Chiriquí Expedition, May 1999. Toucan 25: 4-6.

Ridgely, R. S.; Gwynne, J. A. 1989. A guide to the birds of Panama with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Honduras. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Stiles, F. G. 1983. Systematics of the southern forms of Selasphorus (Trochilidae). The Auk 100: 311-325.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Angehr, G. & Porteous, B.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Selasphorus ardens. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Glow-throated hummingbird (Selasphorus ardens)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author Salvin, 1870
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,500 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species