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Perija Metaltail Metallura iracunda
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Justification
This species is known only from two locations within a very small range, where its specialised habitat is very restricted and declining. It is listed as Endangered because habitat loss and degradation is almost certainly now impacting the known location.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
10 cm. Short-billed hummingbird with bright reddish tail. Short black bill. Male black with coppery-green gloss. Shining green crown and glittering green gorget. Bright, shining maroon-red to reddish-purple tail. Female dark green above and buffy below with few brown spots. Reddish tail like male, with buff-tipped outer feathers. Similar spp. Redder tail and more glistening than smaller Tyrian Metaltail M. tyrianthina. Female M. tyrianthina has less uniform underparts. Voice Unknown.

Distribution and population
Metallura iracunda occurs on the cerros Tres Tetas, Viruela, Pintado and Tetari, and probably Sabana Rubia, in the Sierra de Perijá on the border of Colombia (Guajira) and Venezuela (Zulia) (Meyer de Schauensee 1978, Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998, Hilty 2003).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 20,000-49,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size (e.g. the lower quartile of such estimates spans 50-130 individuals per km2) and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied.

Trend justification
Although there is very little information from its range, this species's population is suspected to be declining at a slow to moderate rate, in line with habitat loss and degradation.

Ecology
It inhabits small areas of open páramo vegetation near summits (A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998). Cerro Pintado comprises karstic limestone covered by elfin forest, Swallenochloa bamboo and grass páramo (A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998). Cerro Tetari is sandstone and supports a different type of páramo vegetation (A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998). It occurs at elevations of 2,800-3,200 m (A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998), but as low as 1,850 m in Venezuela (Meyer de Schauensee 1978, Hilty 2003, Sharpe and Lentino 2008).

Threats
Habitat on the lower slopes of the Sierra de Perijá is severely threatened by narcotics cultivation, uncontrolled colonisation, cattle-ranching and mineral exploitation, which are all facilitated by the many roads approaching the sierra from the Colombian side (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1997, 2000, A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998, R. Strewe in litt. 2003, Sharpe and Lentino 2008). However, Cerro Tetari remains as yet unaffected by these developments (A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998). Only patches of montane forest remain on the steepest slopes of the Cerro Pintado (R. Strewe in litt. 2003). Forest is still being lost to burning and poppy cultivation. Security problems make access very difficult (R. Strewe in litt. 2003).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Cerro Tetari is formally protected by Sierra de Perijá National Park, Venezuela, but there is no active management (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998). Cerro Pintado lies to the north of the park, but the inhabitants of the Villanueva village, Colombia, attempt to protect the natural habitat (A. Viloria per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1998). Conservation Actions Proposed
Estimate the population size (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1997, 2000, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Sharpe and Lentino 2008). Study its ecological requirements (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1997, 2000, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Sharpe and Lentino 2008). Assess habitat availability using aerial photographs (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 1997, 2000, Sharpe and Lentino 2008). Manage and effectively protect Sierra de Perijá National Park (Rodríguez and Rojas-Suárez 1995, Sharpe and Lentino 2008).

References
Fjeldså, J.; Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Copenhagen.

Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. A&C Black, London.

Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. A&C Black, London.

Meyer de Schauensee, R. and Phelps, J. 1978. Graficas Armitano, Caracas, Venezuela.

Rodríguez, J. P.; Rojas-Suárez, F. 1995. Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana. Provita, Caracas.

Sharpe, C.J.; Lentino, M. 2008. Colibrí de Perijá Metallura iracunda . In: Rodríguez, J.P. and Rojas-Suárez, F. (eds), Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana. Tercera Edición, pp. 141. Provita & Shell Venezuela, S.A., Caracas, Venezuela.

Sharpe, C.J.; Lentino, M. 2008. Colibrí de Perijá Metallura iracunda . In: Rodríguez, J.P. and Rojas-Suárez, F. (eds), Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana. Tercera Edición, pp. 141. Provita & Shell Venezuela, S.A., Caracas, Venezuela.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Click here for more information about the Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE)

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Pilgrim, J., Sharpe, C J & Symes, A.

Contributors
Fjeldså, J., Rodríguez, J., Rojas-Suárez, F., Salaman, P., Sharpe, C J, Strewe, R. & Viloria, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Metallura iracunda. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author Wetmore, 1947
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,700 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species