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Hoary Puffleg Haplophaedia lugens

Justification
This species has a moderately small population within a very small range, and numbers are suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to habitat loss. However, its range is not yet severely fragmented or restricted to a few locations. For these reasons the species is classified as Near Threatened.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Haplophaedia lugens occurs on the Pacific slope of the Andes in south-western Colombia (Nariño) and north-western Ecuador (south to Pichincha) (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990), where it is locally common to uncommon.



Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss, which may be increasing.

Ecology
It occurs in very wet premontane to montane evergreen forest, forest edge and occasionally scrub, at 1,100-2,500 m (Hilty and Brown 1986, Salaman 1994, Parker et al. 1996, D. Becker in litt. 2014). It is typically found in low, dense vegetation at small clearings or along ridges in primary forest, frequently near small streams, generally at lower altitudes than H. aureliae (del Hoyo et al. 1999). Seasonal presence at some sites such as El Pangan Bird Reserve in Colombia (Fundación ProAves 2011) suggests that it undertakes local, seasonal movements, at least in part of its range.

Threats
Uncontrolled colonisation following the completion of roads, and massive logging concessions have cleared or degraded over 40% of its Chocó forests, and deforestation is accelerating (Salaman 1994). Currently, intensive logging, human settlement, cattle-grazing, mining and coca and palm cultivation all threaten the remaining forest (Dinerstein et al. 1995). Extensive deforestation and colonisation is taking place around, and possibly inside, the boundaries of La Planada reserve, which holds a key population of the species (Fundación ProAves 2011). At least historically it was taken for trade (Collar and Andrew 1988).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs in several protected areas, including what may be the core population at La Planada Reserve, and also at Awá Indigenous Forest Reserve, seasonally in El Pangan Bird Reserve in Colombia, and Cotacachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve and Centro Científico Las Palmas in Ecuador. Conservation Actions Proposed
Protect remaining areas of premontane forest on the Pacific slope. Survey the species to clarify its status.

References
Collar, N. J.; Andrew, P. 1988. Birds to watch: the ICBP world check-list of threatened birds. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1999. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Fjeldså, J.; Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Copenhagen.

Fundación ProAves de Colombia. 2011. Notes on the status of various threatened birds species occurring in Colombia. Conservacion Colombiana 15: 22-28.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Salaman, P. G. W. 1994. Surveys and conservation of biodiversity in the Chocó, south-west Colombia. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Contributors
Becker, D., Brinkhuizen, D., Cortes, O. & Lebbin, D.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Haplophaedia lugens. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (Gould, 1851)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species