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Coppery-bellied Puffleg Eriocnemis cupreoventris

Justification
Improved knowledge indicates that this species's range no longer approaches the threshold for Vulnerable; however, it is retained as Near Threatened because on-going habitat loss and degradation are thought to be driving a moderately rapid decline in its population.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Eriocnemis cupreoventris occurs from the Mérida mountains, north-west Venezuela, south along both slopes of the East Andes to Cundinamarca, north-east Colombia (Hilty and Brown 1986, Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990). It is uncommon or rare (Parker et al. 1996, F. G. Stiles in litt. 2000, Hilty 2003).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as uncommon to rare.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be undergoing at least a moderately rapid decline owing to continued habitat loss and degradation in its range.

Ecology
It occurs in montane and elfin forest borders, thickets and shrubbery, páramo vegetation with scattered low shrubs and, in Cundinamarca, secondary scrub (F. G. Stiles in litt. 2000) at 1,950-3,000 m (Fjeldså and Krabbe 1990, Hilty 2003).

Threats
Its habitats in the Colombian east Andes have been extensively degraded, with forest in its lower elevational range, on the western slope, largely cleared for intensive crop cultivation and pasture (Forero 1989). Deforestation is locally severe in Mérida and Táchira, Venezuela, primarily owing to agricultural colonisation, with many areas of páramo and forest already cleared for commercial and subsistence cultivation (Stattersfield et al. 1998).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
Effectively protect and manage protected areas where the species occurs. Monitor population at known sites and attempt to obtain an accurate estimate of its population size and trends. Search for the species in potentially suitable habitat at new sites. Study its ecology and its ability to persist in degraded and fragmented habitats. Quantify extent of habitat losses.

References
Fjeldså, J.; Krabbe, N. 1990. Birds of the high Andes. Apollo Books, Copenhagen.

Forero, E. 1989. Colombia. In: Campbell, D.G.; Hammond, H.D. (ed.), Floristic inventory of tropical countries, pp. 355-361. New York Botanical Garden, New York.

Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. A&C Black, London.

Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. A&C Black, London.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Stattersfield, A. J.; Crosby, M. J.; Long, A. J.; Wege, D. C. 1998. Endemic bird areas of the world: priorities for bird conservation. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Clay, R., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Stiles, F.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Eriocnemis cupreoventris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (Fraser, 1840)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 42,900 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species