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Black Inca Coeligena prunellei

Justification
This species has has a larger range and population than previously thought. Nonetheless, its range is still highly fragmented and habitat patches are decreasing in size and quality through ongoing degradation and clearance for agriculture. It is therefore considered Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
11 cm. Dark hummingbird with long, needle-like bill. Mainly black with conspicuous white patch on each side of chest and postocular spot. Glittering blue shoulders. Small greenish-blue throat patch. White-edged undertail-coverts. Black and forked tail. Long, slender, straight black bill. Rosy-red legs. Female slightly duller overall. Similar spp. White pectoral patches are unique. Voice Rarely heard ick when feeding.

Distribution and population
Coeligena prunellei is endemic to Colombia where it occurs on the west slope of the East Andes (Santander, Boyacá, Cundinamarca) and on both the western and eastern slopes of Serranía de los Yariguíes (Donegan and Avendaño 2006). A 1976 specimen of this species was incorrectly labelled as having been collected on the south-west slope of Volcán Tolima in the Central Andes of Quindío (A. J. Negret in litt. 1995). It is locally common at Laguna de Pedropalo (Cundinimarca), Cerro Carare (Boyacá), at 2,000 m on El Talisman and Guanentá-Alto Río Fonce Fauna and Flora Sanctuary (Santander) (Andrade and Repizzo 1994, Wege and Long 1995, Donegan et al. 2003) on the western slope and at La Luchata on the eastern slope of the Serranía de los Yariguíes (Donegan and Avendaño 2006).


Population justification
Velasquez-Tibata et al. (2005) used a habitat model to estimate the population at 4,070-8,720 individuals, and so it is placed in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. This equates to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
The degradation of remaining habitat patches within the species's range continues, hence its population is suspected to be declining at a slow to moderate rate.

Ecology
This is principally a species of mature humid montane forest, especially areas with a predominance of oak Quercus humboldti and Trigonobalanus excelsa. Although birds have also been recorded in open parkland and riverine gallery forest the species is a trap liner and probably relies on the persistance of mature oak forest (P. Salaman in litt. 2007). Most observations have been at 1,675-2,500 m, but it is known between 1,000 and 2,800 m (Schuchmann 1999, T. Züchner in litt. 1999). Breeding is thought to take place between June and October.



Threats
The upper Magdalena valley and the Sagamosa drainage have been undergoing habitat loss, fragmentation and alteration since the 17th century (Stiles et al. 1999). The primary causes are human settlement and urbanisation, with associated logging and agricultural land-use including coffee and, to a lesser extent, plantain and sugarcane plantations and pastures (Stiles et al. 1999). As a result, tiny remnant forest patches are restricted to steep slopes and along streams (Stiles et al. 1999), with the significant exception of Guanentá-Alto Río Fonce (Wege and Long 1995). However, there are still extensive forests that are poorly known to ornithology in the Serranía de las Quinchas, west Boyacá (Stiles et al. 1999). It is considered Endangered in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2002).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It is protected at Guanentá-Alto Río Fonce Fauna and Flora Sanctuary (Andrade and Repizzo 1994) and Parque Regional Chicaque (Cortes in litt. 2012). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys in relatively inaccessible and well forested parts of the Serranía de las Quinchas (Stiles et al. 1999). Study its ecology and breeding behaviour (T. Züchner in litt. 1999). Prepare a management plan for the species (T. Züchner in litt. 1999). Augment conservation activities in Guanentá-Alto Río Fonce Fauna and Flora Sanctuary (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Protect areas of the favoured habitat holding significant populations (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, T. Züchner in litt. 1999).

References
Andrade, G. I.; Repizzo, A. 1994. Guanentá-Alto Rio Fonce Fauna and Flora Sanctuary: a new protected area in the Colombian East Andes. Cotinga: 42-44.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Donegan, T. M.; Avendaño, J. E. 2006. Estudio de las aves de la SerranÍa de los YariguÍes y su conservación. In: Huertas, B. C.; Donegan, T. M. (ed.), Proyecto YARÉ: investigación y evaluación de las especies amenazadas del la SerranÍa de los YariguÍes, Santander, Colombia, BP Conservation Programme.

Donegan, T. M.; Salaman, P. G. W.; Cuervo, A. M. 2003. Wattled guan Aburria Aburri in Serrania de San Lucas, Northern Colombia. 13: 11-14.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Schuchmann, K. L. 1999. Trochilidae (Hummingbirds). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 468-680. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Stiles, F. G.; Rosselli, L.; Bohórquez, C. I. 1999. New and noteworthy records of birds from the middle Magdalena valley of Colombia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 113-129.

Velasquez-Tibata, J.; Ruiz-Ovalle, J.M.; Guerrero, F.; Delgado, D. P.; Pcana, E.; Daza, A.; Gil, S.V.; Silva, N. 2005. Proyecto corredor norandino: evaluacion del papel del los bosques de roble y un sistema de areas protegidas en la conservacion de ave

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Donegan, T., Negret, A., Salaman, P., Züchner, T., Cortes, O.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Coeligena prunellei. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Black Inca (Coeligena prunellei) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (Bourcier, 1843)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 6,400 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species