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Oaxaca Hummingbird Eupherusa cyanophrys
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Justification
Habitat is probably contiguous between the two areas from which this species is known. The lack of records in these intervening areas is almost certainly indicative of the paucity of field studies. Even including these areas of presumed occurrence, the species has a very small range in which habitat is being lost, and consequently it qualifies as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
11 cm. Distinctive, mainly green hummingbird. Rufous secondaries and white outer rectrices. Male glittering green below with turquoise-blue crown and white undertail. Female green crown, white postocular spot and grey ear-coverts. Grey underparts, less rufous secondaries and dusky green edges to outer rectrices. Immature is similar to female. Similar spp. Berylline Hummingbird Amazilia beryllina has rufous tail, lacks blue crown and has red lower mandible. Voice Buzzy, chipping notes. Jerky, warbling song.

Distribution and population
Eupherusa cyanophrys is endemic to the Sierra Miahuatlán, an isolated mountain range in southernmost Oaxaca, Mexico. It has been found in two areas of the sierra, separated by c.60-70 km: in the west along the Puerto Escondido road; and to the east along the Puerto Angel road at its intersection with the río Jalatengo. Appropriate habitat appears widespread along the latter road (Roberson and Carratello 1997), and it was locally common until at least 1997 (S. N. G. Howell in litt. 1998, A. G. Navarro in litt. 1998), but its known range remains highly restricted.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The species's population is suspected to be rapidly declining, in line with the ongoing clearance of montane forest within its range.

Ecology
It is primarily restricted to cloud-forest and the upper reaches of tropical semi-deciduous forest at 1,300-1,950 m, occasionally wandering (possibly seasonally) to c.700 m on adjacent mountain slopes. It also occurs up to 2,500 m, but at lower densities (Howell and Webb 1995a). Nesting has been recorded in September-November and May (Howell and Webb 1995a).

Threats
The cloud-forests on the Sierra Miahuatlán were essentially unspoilt by human activity until the mid-1960s, when huge areas were cut and burnt for the planting of maize. Lower montane forest in the sierra is still being cleared, largely for the cultivation of citrus fruits (Dinerstein et al. 1995). In October 1997, Hurricane Paulina destroyed large portions of suitable cloud-forest habitat (A. G. Navarro in litt. 1998), but the full impact of this stochastic event on the species is unknown.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. No other measures are known. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to assess the precise distribution and the extent of altitudinal migration. Carry out surveys to obtain a population estimate and determine the impact of Hurricane Paulina. Designate a protected area in the Sierra de Miahuatlán encompassing the range of this species (Hernández-Baños et al. 1995).

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.

Hernández-Baños, B. E.; Peterson, A. T.; Navarro-Sigüenza, A. G.; Escalante-Pliego, B. P. 1995. Bird faunas of the humid montane forests of Mesoamerica: biogeographic patterns and priorities for conservation. Bird Conservation International 5: 251-278.

Howell, S. N. G.; Webb, S. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Roberson, D.; Carratello, R. 1997. Updates to the avifauna of Oaxaca, Mexico. Cotinga: 21-22.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Taylor, J.

Contributors
Howell, S., Navarro, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Eupherusa cyanophrys. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Blue-capped hummingbird (Eupherusa cyanophrys) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author Rowley & Orr, 1964
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species