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Mangrove Hummingbird Amazilia boucardi
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Justification
Habitat destruction is reducing and severely fragmenting the naturally very small and disjunct range of this species (Collar et al. 1992). It consequently qualifies as Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
9.5 cm. Medium-sized, bronze-and-green hummingbird. Male pale green on crown and upperparts, with bronze tinge to rump. Bronze-green tail. Turquoise-green throat and chest. Whitish underparts mottled pale green on breast and sides. Dark bill with reddish lower mandible. Female similar with mainly white underparts and little green spotting on throat and sides. Similar spp. Snowy-bellied Hummingbird A. edward has sharp contrast between green and white underparts and much rustier tail. Female White-bellied Emerald A. candida has blacker tail and more green on chest. Voice Soft djt and rapid, descending twitter.

Distribution and population
Amazilia boucardi is very local on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica from the head of Golfo de Nicoya to Golfo Dulce. The species was recently discovered in two new mangrove forest sites on the outer Nicoya Peninsula; a female was trapped in January 2005 and two were trapped in 2006 at Estero Tamarindo (Las Baulas de Guanacaste Marine National Park), and in August 2006, a male and female were observed at Playa Venado (R. Garrigues in litt. 2007). It is patchily distributed even within the four or five large mangrove forests in this range (Harcourt and Sayer 1996), probably reflecting the presence of its preferred food-plant, the Pacific mangrove Pelliciera rhizophorae. Despite tolerating some habitat alteration where P. rhizophorae remains common, it is absent from many areas of apparently suitable habitat. The population in the Important Bird Areas of Costa Rica has been estimated at 2,150-4,150 mature individuals (J. Criado et al. in litt. 2007).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The species's population is suspected to be declining at a moderate rate, in line with the clearance and degradation of mangrove forests in its range.

Ecology
It feeds principally on the flowers of P. rhizophorae, but is occasionally observed in adjacent, non-mangrove habitats. Nesting has been recorded in October-February.

Threats
The construction of salinas and shrimp ponds, and selective logging for charcoal production are destroying mangrove habitats (F. G. Stiles in litt. 1999). Other threats include illegal cutting, dyke and road construction (which have affected the hydrology in a number of places), and pollution (notably around the Golfo de Nicoya port of Puntarenas). The entire Pacific coast of Costa Rica is under heavy development pressure, with potentially negative effects on mangrove forests (R. Garrigues in litt. 2007). This species could be affected by a significant rise in sea-level caused by climate change (R. Garrigues in litt. 2012).


Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. A small population occurs in Tivives Biological Reserve. Cutting mangroves is illegal in Costa Rica, but this law is widely ignored.Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to determine its population size, current distribution and the quality of remaining mangroves. Monitor the clearance and degradation of mangrove forests within the species's range. Investigate the causes of its absence from patches of apparently suitable habitat. Expand Carara Biological Reserve to protect mangroves around the mouth of the río Grande de Tárcoles. Protect mangroves north of Corcovado National Park around the río Sierpe (Capper et al. 1998). Perhaps use this endemic species as part of an awareness campaign to promote the protection of mangrove forests (R. Garrigues in litt. 2007).

References
Capper, D. R.; Clay, R. P.; Lowen, J. C. 1998. Recent sightings of threatened birds around Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica. Cotinga 10: 102.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Harcourt, C. S.; Sayer, J. A. 1996. The conservation atlas of tropical forests: the Americas. Simon and Schuster, New York.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Taylor, J.

Contributors
Biamonte, E., Criado, J., Garrigues, R., Sandoval, L., Stiles, F., Sánchez, C., Sánchez, J., Zook, J., Gómez, C.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazilia boucardi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Mangrove hummingbird (Amazilia boucardi) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (Mulsant, 1877)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 1,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species