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Honduran Emerald Amazilia luciae
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Justification
This species, the only one endemic to Honduras, qualifies as Endangered owing to its very small and severely fragmented range and population, both of which are suspected to be declining in response to habitat loss. The species may be uplisted if improved knowledge shows that its population is smaller than currently estimated, or if improved knowledge or a worsening in the threats faced by species indicate that the rate of decline is more rapid than currently suspected.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
9.5 cm. Medium-sized, green hummingbird. Male has glittering blue-green throat and upper chest, sometimes appearing grey, mottled dusky. Rest of underparts pale grey with mottled green sides. Bright green upperparts with bronzy tinge on uppertail-coverts. Bronze-green tail. Black bill with reddish mandible and dark tip. Female similar with less intense and more restricted gorget. Immature has greyish throat spotted turquoise. Voice Slightly metallic ticking repeated steadily. Also buzzy chatters.

Distribution and population
Amazilia luciae occurs in the arid interior valleys of Honduras, where it is currently known from three sites in the northeast, and has recently been rediscovered in the west of the country. It was not recorded between 1950 and 1988, when it was found to be common at two sites, 16 km apart, near Olanchito and Coyoles in the upper río Aguán valley, Yoro. In 1991, 22-28 birds were found in 2.5 ha of habitat near Olanchito (Howell and Webb 1992). In 1996, it was found north-east of Gualaco in the Agalta valley, where there was less than 1 km2 of suitable habitat (Anderson et al. 1998). A previously unknown population was identified in the Valle de Telica, Olancho department in February 2007 (Anderson and Hyman 2007, Anderson et al. 2010). Surveys in November 2008 located the species in six forest fragments along a 33-km transect in Santa Bárbara department; the first records in the west of the country since 1935 (BirdLife International 2008, R. E. Hyman in litt. 2008, Anderson et al. 2010).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
The species is assumed to be declining in line with continuing habitat loss within its very small range.

Ecology
It inhabits dry forests and scrub, mainly arid, open-canopy deciduous thorn-forest (Anderson et al. 2010), apparently at elevations up to 1,220 m. The thorn-forest near Coyoles is c.6-10 m high and dominated by Mimosaceae, Cactaceae and Euphorbiaceae, and the species is still found despite heavy grazing of the understorey and an apparent lack of flowers. At Olanchito, birds occur in similar but more cut-over and heavily grazed thorn-forest and scrub. The birds recently rediscovered at Santa Bárbara were in fragments of closed-canopy semi-deciduous woodland, ranging from 5 to 60 ha in size (R. E. Hyman in litt. 2008, Anderson et al. 2010). Feeding has been observed at a minimum of 14 plant species, including cacti, thorny shrubs and low trees, herbs, epiphytes and parasitic species (Anderson et al. 2010). During recent fieldwork, over 90% of feeding visits observed in Yoro occurred at Pedilanthus camporum and Nopalea hondurensis, whilst over 90% of visits observed in western Honduras were to Aphelandra scabra and Helicteres guazaumifolia (Anderson et al. 2010). Insect-catching has also been noted. The species is thought to undertake seasonal movements to track resources (Anderson and Hyman 2007).

Threats
At Santa Bárbara and Cofradía most of the thorn-forest has been cleared for grazing and what little remains is extremely dry with few birds of any species present. Most remaining habitat in the río Aguán and Agalta valleys is on large haciendas, managed (non-intensively) for cattle-grazing (M. Bonta in litt. 1999), but there is still clearance for plantation agriculture and cattle pastures (Anderson et al. 1998). In the Agalta valley, bulldozers are removing thorn-forest for replacement with rice cultivation (M. Bonta in litt. 1999), and improved access to the río Aguán valley has facilitated the continuing conversion to pineapple plantations. Overall, most suitable habitat probably exists as fragments of less than 100 ha in size, with the majority located on private land, exacerbating the risk of habitat loss (D. L. Anderson in litt. 2010). Perhaps most concerning are plans to pave and extend a road through the range of this species, which would presumably lead to further habitat loss (S. Eccles in litt. 2000). There are reportedly a number of multinational projects within the species's range in both eastern and western Honduras that are awaiting approval and could result in further habitat loss (D. L. Anderson in litt. 2010).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. The Honduran Air Force property known as Polígono in the río Aguán valley is now managed by the American Bird Conservancy and the Fundación Parque Nacional Pico Bonito as a core for a proposed 7,500-acre thorn forest reserve (M. Bonta in litt. 1999, Anon 2005). An impact assessment of the proposed road is planned (S. Eccles in litt. 2000). The species is a conservation target of the Hummingbird Society. Conservation Actions Proposed
Develop a system of core protected areas and work with neighbouring ranches to ensure that adjacent land is appropriately managed (M. Bonta in litt. 1999). Expand the Sierra de Agalta National Park to encompass suitable habitat within the valley (M. Bonta in litt. 1999). Survey to locate additional populations. Promote the species as a flagship for local and national conservation (M. Bonta in litt. 1999). Complete fencing thorn forest around Polígono to exclude cattle.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Anderson, D. L.; Bonta, M.; Thorn, P. 1998. New and noteworthy bird records from Honduras. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 118: 178-183.

Anderson, D. L.; Hyman, R. E. 2007. Honduran Emerald conservation expedition: protecting the Honduran Emerald Hummingbird and its habitat, February 14-27 2007.

Anon. 2005. Honduran emerald. Bird Conservation: 13.

BirdLife International. 2008. Critical News. Available at: #http://www.birdlife.org/news/news/2008/12/critical_news.html#.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Howell, S. N. G.; Webb, S. 1992. New and noteworthy bird records from Guatemala and Honduras. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 112: 42-49.

Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Capper, D., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Anderson, D., Bonta, M., Eccles, S., Hyman, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazilia luciae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Honduran emerald (Amazilia luciae) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (Lawrence, 1867)
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 400 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species