This species is listed as Endangered because it is known from only three locations within a very small range, in which it is at risk from hunting and habitat destruction and degradation. Its small population is now considered stable but numbers fluctuate between years.
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Xenoperdix udzungwensis (Dowsett and Forbes-Watson (1993) was split into X. udzungwensis and X. obscurata by Bowie and Fjeldsa (2005), but this treatment is not followed by the BirdLife Taxonomic Working Group, because the differences (smaller size, speckled face, no white necklace, non-ochraceous undertail-coverts, less distinctly barred secondaries, scaly-patterned wing-coverts, narrower rectrices and a 0.5% biomolecular divergence) are all minor, and if anything the biomolecular evidence could be counted as a minus point in terms of distinctiveness.
Distribution and populationXenoperdix udzungwensis
29 cm. Rufous-and-grey partridge. Rich rufous upperparts barred black. Grey underparts, heavily blotched black. Orange-red throat and eyebrows. Coral red bill, yellow legs and toes. Juvenile undescribed. Similar spp. Scaly Francolin F. squamatus is larger and much darker overall, but this species does not penetrate forest. Voice Whistled teedli teedli. Also a soft low-pitched call and an explosive cry when alarmed. Calls frequently in the mornings, perhaps most regularly during the rainy season, when breeding peaks (L. Hansen in litt. 2007).
is endemic to Tanzania
, being known only from parts of the Udzungwa highlands (Ndundulu Mountains [Dinesen et al
. 1993, 1994]
, including Mt Luhombero [Butynski and Ehardt 2003; J. Fjelds in litt.
2004] and Nyumbanitu) and the forest covered top of Chugu Hill in the northern Rubeho Mountains (a northern outlier of Mafwomero Forest [Fjelds and Kiure 2003; J. Fjelds in litt.
2004]), c.150 km to the north of the type locality. It seems genuinely absent from the rest of the Udzungwa highlands, despite intensive surveys (Fjelds and Kiure 2003; D. C. Moyer and E. A. Mulungu in litt.
1999; J. Fjelds in litt.
2004; L. Dinesen in litt.
. Genetic analysis suggests that there is no gene flow between the two populations (Bowie and Fjelds 2005)
, and their taxonomy is uncertain. Its area of occupancy has been estimated at 190 km2
, within which it is locally common, with an estimated density of 15-25 birds/km2
; following these estimations the total population has been put at c.3,700 individuals (Dinesen et al.
2001). However, a study in Luhombero Forest indicated that the density there may be lower (Butynski and Ehardt 2003)
. The population may be best estimated in the range of 3,000-4,000 individuals (L. Hansen in litt.
. Although annual population fluctuations make assessing trends difficult, the population is thought to be stable (L. Hansen in litt.
. Population justification
Dinesen et al.
(2001) estimate the population to be 3,700 individuals based on the species's range and density in the Ndundulu forest. Butynski and Ehardt (2003) have suggested that this estimate may be too high as in other parts of its range it appears significantly less common. The population may be best estimated in the range 3,000-4,000 individuals (L. Hansen in litt.
2007), roughly equating to 2,000-2,700 mature individuals.Trend justification
The population is estimated to be stable, with large fluctuations between years (L. Hansen in litt.
It inhabits mature montane and submontane evergreen forest, from 1,300 to 2,400 m (L. Hansen in litt.
, occurring on forested ridges, steep rocky slopes with forest cover and flatter ground, especially where the understorey is open with scattered Cyperus
sedges and ferns (Fjelds and Kiure 2003; J. Fjelds in litt.
. All locations known for this species are forest with Podocarpus
trees (Fjelds and Kiure 2003)
, although it does occur in mature forest dominated by other forest tree species (e.g. Hagenia abyssinica
) (L. Hansen in litt.
2007). Otherwise its habitat requirements and disjunct distribution remain unclear (Fjelds and Kiure 2003). It feeds in the leaf-litter on the forest floor, on invertebrates such as beetles (L. Hansen in litt.
and seeds (McGowan 1994). It forages in groups, which are probably families, with 3-13 observed together (L. Hansen in litt.
2007). The main breeding period starts with the onset of the rains in November to March (L. Hansen in litt.
2007). Adults have been seen with chicks in late November, early December and early January (J. Fjelds in litt.
, and immatures are seen almost throughout the year, with a main peak in February to at least July (L. Hansen in litt.
2007). The species roosts in trees, in groups of over 10, four to eight metres above the ground (L. Hansen in litt.
The species appears more susceptible to hunting, especially snaring, than once thought (D. C. Moyer and E. A. Mulungu in litt.
1999; L. Hansen in litt
. 2003; J. Fjelds in litt.
2003), and although hunting pressure is comparatively low, its demographic effects may be large (Fjelds and Kiure 2003; J. Fjelds in litt.
2003). It has been observed on several occasions that local people are efficient at catching the species with snares (L. Dinesen in litt.
2007). Disturbance and hunting (pole cutting, honey collection, traps and snares) are believed to have increased markedly; at least 25 traps and snares were found during surveys for the species conducted in 2002-03 in the Nyumbanitu Forest (L. Hansen in litt
. 2003; L. Hansen in litt.
. The species is probably not hunted in the more remote parts of the Udzungwa highlands (L. Hansen in litt
. 2003; J. Fjelds in litt.
2003). Many highland forests are severely disturbed by humans and elephants, and large, mostly human-induced, wildfires sometimes occur (Fjelds and Kiure 2003). As forests decrease in size owing to logging and fires, the species becomes increasingly susceptible to human activities such as hunting (L. Dinesen in litt.
2007). Wide tourist trails have been cut deep into Nyumbanitu forest that are used by lions, hyenas and a non-forest genet Genetta
sp., which has been observed predating birds including X. udzungwensis
on one occasion (L. Hansen in litt.
. The relatively fast growing human population in Udekwa is increasing the pressure for farmland and meat
(L. Hansen in litt.
. Payments on new farmland are made only once an income is secured, and farmers prefer areas close to the forest edge. The vicinity to the forest makes it easier for the farmer to get poles and other tools for farming, and wildlife meat and medicine from the trees. The farmers commonly clear land by burning, and control of fires is often lost, as was the case in 2003 (L. Hansen in litt.
. Conservation Actions Underway
Ndundulu and Nyumbanitu Mountains lie within Kilombero Nature Reserve. Half of the Ndundulu forest, including Mt Luhombero, is inside the Udzungwa Mountains National Park
(D. C. Moyer and E. A. Mulungu in litt.
1999; J. Fjelds in litt.
2004). From 2007-2011, a PhD project assessing the effectiveness of the Joint Forest Management programme in the villages of Udekwa and Ifuwa as a model for future resource stewardship schemes was carried out (L. Dinesen in litt.
2007, N. Burgess in litt.
2012). Conservation Actions Proposed
Evaluate the effects of human disturbance. Determine whether existing ecotourism schemes generate significant revenues, and investigate their effects upon the level of exploitation. Determine the population size, distribution and threats to the Rubeho population. Support implementation of management plans in the Udzungwa Mountains and Udzungwa National Park IBAs. Establish the precise altitudinal range and breadth of habitat-types used, ensuring that disturbance is minimised. Where possible, attempt to halt the clearance of permanent tourist trails through forests, and consider feasibility of establishing buffer zones around forests to protect them from fire (L. Hansen in litt.
Bowie, R.C.K. and Fjeldsa, J. 2005. Genetic and morphological evidence for two species in the Udzungwa forest partridge Xenoperdix udzungwensis. Journal of East African Natural History 94(1): 192-201.
Butynski, T. M.; Ehardt, C. L. 2003. Notes on ten restricted-range birds in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Scopus 23: 12-27.
Dinesen, L.; Fjeldså, J.; Hansen, L. A. 1994. The Udzungwa Forest Partridge. Annual Review of the World Pheasant Association 1994: 73-77.
Dinesen, L.; Lehmberg, T.; Rahner, M. C.; Fjeldsa, J. 2001. Conservation priorities for the forests of the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania, based on primates, duikers and birds. Biological Conservation 99: 223-236.
Dinesen, L.; Lehmberg, T.; Svendsen, J. O.; Hansen, L. A. 1993. Range extensions and other notes on some restricted-range forest birds from West Kilombero in the Udzungwa Mountains, Tanzania. Scopus 17: 48-59.
Fjeldsa, J.; Kiure, J. 2003. A new population of the Udzungwa Forest Partridge. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 123: 52-57.
Fuller, R. A.; Carroll, J. P.; McGowan, P. J. K. 2000. Partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks, guineafowl, and turkeys. Status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. IUCN and World Pheasant Association, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Keane, A.M.; Carroll, J. P.; Fuller, R. A.; McGowan, P.J. K. in press. Partridges, quails, francolins, snowcocks, guineafowl and turkeys: status survey and conservation action plan 2005-2009. IUCN and WPA, Gland, Switzerland.
McGowan, P. J. K. 1994. Phasianidae (Pheasants and Partridges). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 434-552. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Further web sources of information
Hear sounds for this species from xeno-canto, the community database of shared bird sounds from around the world.
View photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection
Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Evans, M., Keane, A., Shutes, S., Starkey, M., Stattersfield, A., Symes, A., Taylor, J.
Burgess, N., Dinesen, L., Fjelds, J., Hansen, L., Moyer, D., Mulungu, E.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Xenoperdix udzungwensis. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2013.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 10/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
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Additional resources for this species