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Long-tailed Sabrewing Campylopterus excellens

Justification
This species is listed as Near Threatened because it occupies a moderately small range, which is suspected to be in decline owing to habitat clearance for agriculture. As a consequence of this threat, its population is suspected to be experiencing a moderately rapid population decline. Further research is required into this species's ecology and the impact of habitat loss. If the population decline is found to be rapid, the species may be uplisted to a higher threat category.

Taxonomic source(s)
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Taxonomic note

Campylopterus curvipennis (del Hoyo et al. 2013) was previously split into C. curvipennis and C. excellens following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Distribution and population
Campylopterus excellens is fairly common in suitable habitat in south-east Veracruz, north-east Oaxaca and west Chiapas, Mexico (Howell and Webb 1995a, AOU 1998, A. G. Navarro in litt. 1998). Most records are from the Sierra de los Tuxtlas area of Veracruz.

Population justification
Partners in Flight estimated the population to number fewer than 50,000 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008), thus it is placed in the band 20,000-49,999 individuals here.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be in decline owing to habitat clearance for agriculture.

Ecology
This species inhabits humid and riparian forest, and open woodland in lowlands and foothills (up to 1,200 m) (Howell and Webb 1995a, AOU 1998, A. G. Navarro in litt. 1998). Its diet consists of nectar and arthropods (del Hoyo et al. 1999). Males in breeding condition have been reported in September-May (del Hoyo et al. 1999).

Threats
Extensive clearance for cattle-ranching and agriculture has deforested much of the region in which the species occurs, and remaining habitat is highly fragmented (Dirzo and García 1992).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It occurs in a number of reserves (such as the Santa Marta Biosphere Reserve), but the extent of protection that some of these provide is questionable (Dirzo and García 1992). Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys to assess the species's total population size. Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor rates of habitat loss and degradation. Conduct research into the species's ecology. Improve active protection of existing reserves in the species's range. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

References
AOU. 1998. Check-list of North American birds. American Ornithologists' Union, Washington, D.C.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1999. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dirzo, R.; García, M. C. 1992. Rates of deforestation in Los Tuxtlas, a Neotropical area in southeast Mexico. Conservation Biology 6(1): 84-90.

Howell, S. N. G.; Webb, S. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Taylor, J.

Contributors
Navarro, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Campylopterus excellens. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (Wetmore, 1941)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 30,200 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species