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Hook-billed Hermit Glaucis dohrnii
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Justification
This species qualifies as Endangered owing to the massive deforestation throughout its range which has reduced it to a few fragmented subpopulations likely to be declining as a result of continued habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Ramphodon dohrnii Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

Identification
12 cm. Dull coloured hermit hummingbird. Greenish-bronze upperparts. Cinnamon underparts. White supercilium and malar, with dusky face and lower border to malar. Metallic bronze tail with outer rectrices tipped white. Almost straight bill with whitish mandible. Similar spp. Saw-billed Hermit Ramphodon naevius is larger with bold streaks on underparts. Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsuta has slightly decurved bill, rufous base to outer four rectrices and black subterminal tail-band. Voice Descending high-pitched phrase.

Distribution and population
Glaucis dohrnii occurs in east Brazil, where it is known from a few widely scattered localities in Bahia and Espírito Santo. There are historical sight records from extreme east Minas Gerais where its occurrence is supported by records from adjacent Espírito Santo. Rio de Janeiro has been included in the species's published range based on a specimen labelled Rio de Janeiro. In Bahia, there are recent reports from only three sites: Estação Veracruz (formerly the CVRD Porto Seguro Reserve) (F. Olmos in litt. 1999), where it was found relatively frequently during 1993-1997 [E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999]), Monte Pascoal National Park (a few recent records [G. M. Kirwan in litt. 2000, Y. Oniki in litt. 1993]), and adjacent to Serra de Itamaruja (one in July 1993 [Y. Oniki in litt. 1993]). In Espírito Santo, there is just one recent record (in 1988), from Linhares Forest Reserve, but it has not been seen subsequently. Possible records of birds at two further sites (Bralanda and Barrolândia) are being verified (E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999). It is likely that the species has never been common, but it has undoubtedly declined significantly in numbers and distribution.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
A moderate and ongoing decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat destruction and fragmentation.

Ecology
It occurs humid forest, particularly along streambeds with flowering Heliconia. It is generally seen in the forest interior, but has been recorded visiting ornamental flowers in areas adjacent to forest. It is reported to breed from September to February.

Threats
The lowland forests of east Brazil have been fragmented and destroyed, and this is considered to be the principal cause of its decline. Although there are recent records from two reserves, these are under pressure from settlers, suffer from fire and road construction and generally provide inadequate protection. Perhaps most importantly, they protect few watercourses and consequently little suitable habitat for this species. The new owners of Estação Veracruz have apparently abandoned plans to clear the forest (F. Olmos in litt. 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. It is protected under Brazilian law and survives in Monte Pascoal National Park, Bahia, and Linhares Forest Reserve, Espírito Santo.Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess its current status at Monte Pascoal National Park, Linhares Forest Reserve and Córrego Grande Biological Reserve. Survey historical localities and other areas of suitable habitat. Study its ecological requirements. Promote the continued protection of forest at Estação Veracruz and existing reserves where the species occurs.

References
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Clay, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R.

Contributors
Kirwan, G., Olmos, F., Oniki, Y., Willis, E.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Glaucis dohrnii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Hook-billed hermit (Glaucis dohrnii) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Trochilidae (Hummingbirds)
Species name author (Bourcier & Mulsant, 1852)
Population size 250-999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 490 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species