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Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened as survey data has demonstrated that it has undergone a moderately rapid population decline due to loss of nesting habitat. However, trends for three-generation periods ending in 2006, 2007 and 2009 have reached 32%, 31% and 30% respectively, and should these rates of declines continue, the species may be uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Chaetura pelagica breeds in eastern North America as far north as southern Canada, and occasionally in California and Arizona (USA). It is a migratory species, wintering in eastern Ecuador, Peru, north-west Brazil and northern Chile (del Hoyo et al. 1999). The Canadian population, which occupies one quarter of the breeding range, is estimated at just 11,820 breeding individuals (COSEWIC 2007), although the global population has been estimated at 15,000,000 individuals (Rich et al. 2004). Trends have been recorded through North America between 1966 and 2007, with a decline of 5.5% per year in Canada (total decline of 90%) and 1.8% per year in the USA (total decline of 53%). Overall, during this period the population has declined by 1.9% per year, though this decline has accelerated in recent years, reaching a decline of 2.8% per year between 1980 and 2008 (Dionne et al. 2008) (total decline of 40% over this period) (Sauer et al. 2008).

Population justification
The global population size has been estimated to number 15,000,000 individuals.

Trend justification
According to figures from the Breeding Birds Survey, trends over a 15 year period (three generations) for the last 20 years have, on average, indicated a 20-29% decline in the global population (J. Sauer in litt. 2010).

Ecology
Behaviour This migratory species is extremely gregarious, and typically nests in chimneys, though other structures such as hollow tree trunks can be used (del Hoyo et al. 1999, COSEWIC 2007). Eggs have been recorded from May to July, though the precise timing varies slightly throughout its range. A clutch of two to seven eggs is laid, and extra-parental co-operation is well established. It is present in North America until September (del Hoyo et al. 1999). Habitat It is readily associated with urban settings, though also forages and breeds over a variety of natural habitats over its wide range. Main habitats include river-edge forest, the edge of tropical lowland evergreen forest and second-growth scrub. It can also be found along the coast in Peru, up to 3,000 m over irrigated farmland in western Andean valleys, and even in central city zones (del Hoyo et al. 1999). Diet Spiders, along with Hymenoptera spp., Diptera spp. and other insects have been recorded (del Hoyo et al. 1999).

Threats
The most significant threat to the species appears to be the decreasing number of nesting and roosting sites caused by logging operations, the demolition of old abandoned buildings and, especially, the sharp decline in the number of suitable and accessible traditional chimneys, which are this species's main breeding habitat (COSEWIC 2007, R. Windingstad in litt. 2010). It is projected that very few suitable sites will remain within the next thirty years (COSEWIC 2007). The number of breeding sites in Quebec is limited, and it is estimated that only 60% of breeding-age adults actually reproduce; a trend which is thought to be replicated across Canada (COSEWIC 2007). Hurricanes during the migration period and harsh weather conditions during breeding season have caused a considerable number of deaths (COSEWIC 2007, Dionne et al. 2008). In its South American wintering area, the species is threatened by intensive logging operations and by fires (COSEWIC 2007).

Conservation Actions Underway
Listed as a Threatened species in Canada (COSEWIC 2007). Populations continue to be monitored as part of the Breeding Birds Survey. Conservation Actions Proposed
Research potential measures to prevent further population declines. Assess threats in South America.

References
Butler, C. J. 2003. The disproportionate effect of global warming on the arrival dates of short-distance migratory birds in North America. Ibis 145: 484-495.

COSEWIC. 2007. Assessment and Status Report on the Chimney Swift Chaetura pelagica in Canada.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1999. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 5: Barn-owls to Hummingbirds. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dionne, M.; Maurice, C.; Gauthier, J.; Shaffer, F. 2008. Impact of Hurricane Wilma on migrating birds: the case of the Chimney Swift. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 120(4): 784-792.

Rich, T.D.; Beardmore, C.J.; Berlanga, H.; Blancher, P.J.; Bradstreet, M.S.W.; Butcher, G.S.; Demarest, D.W.; Dunn, E.H.; Hunter, W.C.; Inigo-Elias, E.E.; Martell, A.M.; Panjabi, A.O.; Pashley, D.N.; Rosenberg, K.V.; Rustay, C.M.; Wendt, J.S.; Will, T.C. 2004. Partners in flight: North American landbird conservation plan. Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, NY.

Sauer, J.R.; Hines, J.E.; Fallon, J. 2008. The North American Breeding Bird Survey, results and analysis 1966-2007. Version 5.15.2008.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Ekstrom, J., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Windingstad, R.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Chaetura pelagica. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/08/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Apodidae (Swifts)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 4,610,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species