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Red-necked Amazon Amazona arausiaca

Justification
Conservation action has helped this species recover from an all-time population low in 1980. It still qualifies as Vulnerable because numbers remain very small and its range is small and restricted to a single island. However, if there are any future declines in available habitat, it may qualify for uplisting to Endangered.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
40 cm. Green parrot with blue forecrown and face, with white bare orbital area. Red patch on throat (sometimes absent). Red-and-yellow speculum. Primaries tipped blackish. Similar spp. Imperial Parrot A. imperialis is larger and darker, with largely purple body. Voice Harsh screeches, squawks and yapping scre-ah, higher pitched than A. imperialis. Vocalizations are different in the northern and southern regions of Dominica.

Distribution and population
Amazona arausiaca is concentrated around the Morne Diablotin Massif in the north of Dominica, with birds also occupying habitat in the far north (Morne au Diable region), east, south-east and centre of the island, and Morne Trois Pitons National Park in the south (Zamore and Durand 1998, Wiley et al. 2004, P. R. Reillo in litt. 2007). Many areas have been reoccupied after the species disappeared from them in the aftermath of the destructive Hurricane David in 1979 (Zamore and Durand 1998). It is described as "ubiquitous" in forested areas, and "locally common" on agricultural land. Numbers have risen from possibly as few as 150 birds in 1980, to possibly as many as 1,000 in the present day (P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012).

Population justification
The most recent population estimate stands at 850-1,000 mature individuals (P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012), roughly equivalent to 1,200-1,500 individuals in total.

Trend justification
There are no new data on population trends, but the species is assumed to still be increasing.

Ecology
It mainly occurs in the canopy of rainforests, generally between sea level and 800 m, but occasionally to 1,200 m. It has become a regular visitor to coastal areas (Juniper and Parr 1998, P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012), descending to sea level throughout the year to search for food (Zamore and Durand 1998, Reillo and Durand 2008). There are an increasing number of records from agricultural land, mainly in citrus crop, passion fruit and mango plantations (Zamore and Durand 1998). Breeding takes place between February and June, with nests usually situated in the cavities of large forest trees, such as Dacryodes excelsa and Sloanea caribaea. These are usually 11-25 m above the ground and commonly have a protective covering of vines, bromeliads or creepers (Juniper and Parr 1998, Zamore and Durand 1998).

Threats
Habitat loss at lower elevations has been mainly caused by clearance for agriculture (Collar 1997); although replanting with fruit crops has benefited the species (Reillo and Durand 2008), frugivory by the parrots has sparked conflict with local farmers (Douglas 2011). Hurricane-related damage has also been important: another hurricane of the magnitude of Hurricane David could reverse recent population increases. Hunting and illegal trade are now low-level threats.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. It is fully protected under domestic legislation. This species is represented by a maximum of 1000 individuals and continues to be widely persecuted by locals protecting crops.  There are however no records of ex situ breeding (Lexicon of Parrots).  Much remaining habitat is within the Northern and Central forest reserves, and the Morne Trois Pitons and Morne Diablotin national parks, but adjacent areas of critical importance are not protected (Juniper and Parr 1998). Since 1980, it has benefited from joint government and non-government efforts to protect its habitat and sensitise local people to its needs. Research methods have been improved recently to maximise ecological information gained whilst minimising disturbance to the birds, and study has yielded important information on nesting behaviour and parental care; similarly, census methodologies have improved to give more accurate estimates of density and population size (Reillo and Durand 2008). The population is monitored annually. A recent PhD project examined the species's interaction with fruit crops on Dominica (P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Continue enforcement of the protection of Morne Diablotin and Morne Trois Pitons national parks and the Central and Northern forest reserves. Continue to monitor the population annually. Investigate the effects of nest-site (and food) competition between this species and A. imperialis. Continue to prohibit trade in this species, exports for ex situ captive breeding, and import of non-native psittacines as pets on Dominica (P. R. Reillo in litt. 2012).

References
Arndt, T. 1995. Lexicon of parrots. Arndt Verlag, Bretten, Germany.

Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Douglas, L. R. 2011. Social and economic underpinnings of human wildlife conflict on Dominica. Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, Columbia University.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Reillo, P. R.; Durand, S. 2008. Parrot conservation on Dominica: successes, challenges, and technological innovations. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 21(1): 52-58.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Wiley, J.W.; Gnam, R.S.; Koenig, S.E.; Dornelly, A.; Galvez, X.; Bradley, P.E.; White, T.; Zamore, M.; Reillo, P. R.; Anthony, D. 2004. Status and conservation of the family Psittacidae in the West Indies. Journal of Caribbean Ornithology 17(Special issue): 94-154.

Zamore, M. P.; Durand, S. 1998. Status and conservation of the Amazon parrots of the Commonwealth of Dominica.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Reillo, P.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazona arausiaca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Red-necked Amazon (Amazona arausiaca)

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (M
Population size 850-1000 mature individuals
Population trend Increasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 100 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species