This species is classified as Endangered because recent population estimates from Brazil indicate that the global population is very small, and has suffered a rapid decline owing to extensive habitat loss and fragmentation, compounded by trade, and rapid declines are projected to continue. Further clarification is needed as to whether any Brazilian subpopulations exceed 250 individuals.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Distribution and populationAmazona vinacea
30 cm. Colourful parrot. Bright green with dark edging to feathers, giving scaly effect. Narrow red forehead, lores and speculum. Pale bluish nape. Breast suffused vinous-maroon. Turquoise tinged primaries. Green tail with red base of outer-tail feathers. Pinky-red bill with yellower tip. Fledglings lack red on bill, but have same red forehead as adults. Similar spp. Red-browed Amazon A. rhodocorytha has blue in face and lacks lilac breast. Red-spectacled Amazon A. pretrei has more extensive red on head and wings. Voice High-pitched and nasal, warbled cráu or rac-rac, and hollow créu calls when perched.
has become rare throughout its extensive range. In the early 1980s, Paraguay
was considered the global stronghold, but all remaining subpopulations in Canindeyú, Alto Paraná, and Caaguazú number fewer than c.200 birds (Wege and Long 1995, Lowen et al
. 1996, Cockle et al.
2007). The Itaipú reserves and Reserva Natural Privada Itabó are key sites and the minimum remaining population in Paraguay has been estimated at 220 birds (Cockle et al.
2007). There are no recent records from Caazapá or Concepción, and it has probably been extirpated in Amambay (where its historical occurrence is doubtful), Itapúa and Guairá. It is perhaps most common in Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Paraná (several populations of more than 100 birds), southern Brazil
, and low numbers persist in Minas Gerais and São Paulo, within an estimated national total of 1,500-2,000 birds (G. A. Bencke and A. E. Rupp in litt.
2009). It was possibly never common, and must be close to extinction in Bahia, Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. In Argentina
, few populations remain in Misiones, and the species's stronghold is the mosaic of small farms and forest remnants between San Pedro and Santa Rosa (San Pedro Important Bird Area) (Bodrati et al.
2005), with two small additional populations near Campo Viera and Bernardo de Yrigoyen (Cockle et al.
2007). A 2007 census yielded a minimum of 253 individuals in Argentina. Population justification
Based on estimates of 1,500-2,000 individuals in Brazil (G. Bencke in litt.
2009), 220-400 in Paraguay and 253 in Argentina (K. Cockle in litt.
2009), the total population is believed to lie within the range 1,970-2,650 individuals and is placed precautionarily within the band 1,000-2,499. This equates to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to illegal nest poaching, habitat destruction and persecution as a crop pest.Ecology
It inhabits lowland and highland Atlantic forest up to 2,000 m, and ecotones between this forest and grasslands (southern Misiones) and cerrado (Paraguay). There is a strong association with Araucaria angustifolia
in Rio Grande do Sul and some correlation in the historical distributions of bird and tree, but Amazona vinacea
was distributed throughout eastern Paraguay and southern and western Misiones, Argentina, where there has been no Araucaria angustifolia
in historic times, and many other food sources are utilised, including seeds of many native and exotic species, even in areas with Araucaria
forest (Lowen et al
. 1996, Juniper and Parr 1998, Cockle et al.
2007). It nests from September to January in cavities in various tree species (Cockle et al.
2007). Significant movements may occur in Brazil, possibly dictated by intra- and inter-year variations in Araucaria
cone-crop production, but these do not affect the Argentinian or Paraguayan populations. During the breeding season, it is found in pairs or small groups (probably non-reproductive individuals); after the breeding season (February to July), the species congregates in large groups and roosts communally (K. Cockle, A. Bodrati, N. Fariña and J. Segovia in litt.
In 1984-1991, 38% of Paraguay's Atlantic forests disappeared (Huespe Fatecha et al
. 1994), and range contractions in Brazil presumably result from similarly extensive deforestation. There is some correlation with the disappearance of Araucaria
forest e.g. in Paraná, 73,780 km2
forest was reduced to 15,932 km2
in 1965 (Hueck 1978). Selective logging, colonisation and plantation agriculture threaten remaining forests (Dinerstein et al
. 1995). However, in Argentina, Amazona vinacea
has disappeared from large forest reserves (e.g. the 1,500 km2
Iguazú-Urugua-í forest complex), remaining mostly in the mosaic of small farms and degraded forest remnants between San Pedro and Santa Rosa. There, where the wild population numbers approximately 200 individuals, 40 individuals were found in captivity in 35 homes between 2003 and 2005 (Cockle et al.
2007). In 2006 and 2007, from twelve nests identified in this area, only one chick fledged; at least three nests were depredated, at least two were flooded during storms, and at three nests the chicks were captured for sale to Brazil (Proyecto Selva de Pino Paraná in litt.
2007). In the anthropogenic habitat that A. vinacea
selects in Argentina, there appear to be few appropriate nest cavities, and most nests are in large, shallow, cavities which are easily depredated or flooded during storms (Proyecto Selva de Pino Paraná in litt.
2007). Furthermore, the species appears to be very conservative in selecting nest sites, returning year after year to cavities that continually fail (Proyecto Selva de Pino Paraná in litt.
2007). Competition with other hole nesting animals may also be important: in the above mentioned nests in Argentina in 2007, A. vinacea
apparently lost competitions for nest cavities with exotic honeybees, possums, and several species of hole-nesting birds, apparently during the incubation stage (Proyecto Selva de Pino Paraná in litt.
2007). Internal trade has probably affected Brazilian and Argentine populations, and one massive bird-smuggling operation was centred in Paraguay and included A. vinacea
(Endangered Species Bull. 1995 20:7). The species was also shot as a crop pest in certain areas (White 1882,
Chebez 1992), but this does not appear to be an important threat today (Cockle et al.
2007). It is considered nationally Vulnerable in BrazilConservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II and protected under Brazilian law. Small populations occur in numerous protected areas (Wege and Long 1995, F. Olmos in litt
. 1999). In Argentina, two small provincial parks are used by the species, but offer only partial protection because the parrots use habitat outside of the parks for most parts of their life cycle, including, critically, reproduction. In the species' Argentine stronghold between San Pedro and Santa Rosa, environmental education is underway to reduce capture of chicks, and the population has been monitored since 2005 (Proyecto Selva de Pino Paraná in litt.
2007). Successful breeding in captivity has occurred.Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor large populations (in March in Argentina). Study reproductive biology and demography throughout the species's distribution and develop structured captive breeding programmes to counteract the high level of poaching of wild populations. Protect General Carneiro (Santa Catarina), Itaipú (Alto Paraná), RNP Itabó Rivas (Canindeyú), Estancia Golondrina (Caaguazú) and forest outside reserves in Rio de Janeiro (Snyder et al
and between San Pedro and Santa Rosa in Misiones. Invest in permanent trained rangers and resolve land tenure problems in Brazilian and Paraguayan reserves (F. Olmos in litt
. 1999, Cockle et al.
2007). Enforce anti-trafficking laws on roads connecting Monte Pascoal National Park to south Brazil (Snyder et al
. 2000), at sites where the species is captured, and on the borders and ports of Paraguay and Argentina. Raise local public awareness to curtail nest-robbing and promote conservation of nest sites. In Argentina, provide technical support to promote soil conservation, to avoid clearing of forest for crops on small-holder farms.
Bodrati, A.; Cockle, K.; Capuzzi, G. 2005. San Pedro. In: Di Giacomo, A. S. (ed.), Areas de importancia para la conservación de las aves en Argentina, pp. 294-297. Aves Argentinas/AOP, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Chebez, J. C. 1992. Notas sobre algunas aves poco conocidas o amenazadas de Misiones (Argentina). Aprona, Boletin Cientifico 21: 12-30.
Cockle, K.; Capuzzi, G.; Bodrati, A.; Clay, R.; del Castillo, H.; Velásquez, M.; Areta, J. I.; Fariña, N.; Fariña, R. 2007. Distribution, abundance and conservation of Vinaceous Amazons (Amazona vinacea) in Argentina and Paraguay. Journal of Field Ornithology 78(1): 21-39.
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Dinerstein, E.; Olson, D. M.; Graham, D. J.; Webster, A. L.; Primm, S. A.; Bookbinder, M. P.; Ledec, G. 1995. A conservation assesssment of the terrestrial ecoregions of Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank, Washington, D.C.
Fariña, N.; Welter, M.; Cockle, K.; Bodrati, A. 2010. Abundancia del loro vinoso (Amazona vinacea) en la Argentina: resultados del conteo 2007 en el departamento San Pedro, Misiones. Nuestras Aves 54: 44-46.
Hueck, K. 1978. Los bosques de Sudamérica; ecología, composición e importancia económica. Sociedad Alemania [sic] de Cooperacion [sic] Técnica, Eschborn, Germany.
Huespe Fatecha, H.; Spinzi Mendonca, L.; Curiel, M. V.; Burgos, S.; Rodas Insfrán, O. 1994. Uso de la tierra y deforestación en la region oriental del Paraguay, periodo 1984-1991. Universidad Nacional de Asunción/Facultad Ingenieria Agronomica/Carrera de Ingenieria Forestal, San Lorenzo, Paraguay.
Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.
Lowen, J. C.; Bartrina, L.; Clay, R. P.; Tobias, J. A. 1996. Biological surveys and conservation priorities in eastern Paraguay (the final reports of Projects Canopy '92 and Yacutinga '95). CSB Conservation, Cambridge, U.K.
Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
The Avicultural Society. 2007. THE VINACEOUS AMAZON Amazona vinacea AT LORO PARQUE. The Avicultural Magazine 103(2).
Urben-Filho, A..; Straube, F. C.; Carrano, E. 2008. Amazona vinacea. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M.; Paglia, A. P. (ed.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção, Volume 2, pp. 462-464. MMA and Fundação Biodiversitas, Brasíl
Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.
White, E. W. 1882. Notes on the birds collected in the Argentine Republic. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London: 591-629.
Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.
Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo
Text account compilers
Babarskas, M., Benstead, P., Capper, D., Mazar Barnett, J., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.
Bencke, G., Bodrati, A., Chebez, J., Cockle, K., De Luca, A., Fariña, N., Olmos, F., Pérez, N., Rupp, A., Segovia, J.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Amazona vinacea. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2013.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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