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Red-browed Amazon Amazona rhodocorytha
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Justification
This species is Endangered owing to its severely fragmented and declining range and population. Suitable Atlantic forest habitat clearance continues and trapping for the cagebird trade is an additional threat. It is considered nationally Endangered in Brazil.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
35 cm. Bright green parrot. Bright red forecrown, orange lores and yellow below lores. Mid-crown grades to brownish-purple on hindcrown. Bluish to violet cheeks and throat. Dark scaling on neck and mantle. Darker wings, with red-based black primaries. Green tail with red markings and yellow tips. Immature has more restricted red on head. Voice Low-pitched and nasal crawA notes and other squeaks.

Distribution and population
Amazona rhodocorytha is now rare and local in the isolated Atlantic forest fragments of east Brazil. It was first discovered in north São Paulo in the early 1990s (P. Martuscelli in litt. 1994, 1999). The healthiest populations are now found in Espírito Santo, where the largest forest blocks remain (Klemann Júnior et al. 2008). It also occurs at three sites in south-east Bahia, and five in each of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro. A disjunct population remains at São Miguel dos Campos, Alagoas, but recent surveys failed to find it elsewhere in the state (Klemann-Júnior et al. 2008). It was formerly abundant but, despite the recent accumulation of more records and localities, has clearly declined significantly. It is still fairly common at a few sites, most notably on Ilha Grande (R. B. Pineschi per C. Yamashita in litt. 2000), at Sooretama and adjacent Linhares; and surveys observed 2,295 birds in Espírito Santo in 2004-2006 (Klemann Júnior et al. 2008, L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2007, 2012).

Population justification
The species has a small population placed in the band 1,000-2,499 individuals in total. This equates to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and ongoing population decline is suspected on the basis of habitat destruction and fragmentation and capture for the national and international pet trade.

Ecology
It occurs primarily in lowland humid forests, but presumed seasonally displaced individuals have been found up to 1,000 m. It feeds on fruit, seeds, berries and buds procured in treetops, and has been recorded feeding in papaya, jackfruit, mangoes, cocoa, banana and coffee plantations (Klemann-Júnior 2006, L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2012). Eggs possibly hatch in October and pairs with fledglings have been observed in January.

Threats
Less than 10% of original forest cover remains in Bahia and Espírito Santo, and only 2% in Alagoas (Brown and Brown 1992, Conservation International 1995), primarily because of conversion to plantations and pastureland. In Rio de Janeiro, many important habitat fragments are being cleared, notably around Desengano State Park. The collapse of the cocoa economy in south Bahia has resulted in increased logging by landowners and the colonisation of reserves by former plantation workers (Snyder et al. 2000). If the seasonal displacement of birds is confirmed, this would multiply the problems of habitat loss. In the 1998-1999 breeding season, 174 nestlings were poached, mostly from reserves, for the national and international cage-bird trade (Brown and Brown 1992), while 664 individuals were recorded in captivity at the Centre for Reintroduction of Wild Animals in 2005-2006 and others were found in private cages (L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2007). Illegal trade is apparently the overriding threat to the species in Espírito Santo (Klemann-Júnior et al. 2008b).  Souvenirs containing feathers have been seen for sale outside Monte Pascoal National Park (Sweeney 1996). It is considered a pest species in some papaya, coffee and cocoa plantations (Klemann-Júnior 2006, L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2012).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II and protected under Brazilian law. It occurs in 14 reserves (Wege and Long 1995, R. B. Pineschi per C. Yamashita in litt. 2000), but most of these provide minimal habitat protection and none are effective against poaching. The ex situ population is managed under a European species survival scheme (Sweeney 1996) and Curitiba Zoo (L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2012), which together with the Loro Parque Fundación, Rare Species Conservatory Foundation and Idéia Ambiental, have successfully developed a captive breeding programme (Reinschmidt and Waugh 2005, L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2007, 2012). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to locate additional populations. Protect forests where the species occurs outside reserves in Rio de Janeiro. Effectively protect habitat and birds within reserves and further develop the captive-breeding population. Enforce anti-trafficking laws, especially on the roads connecting Monte Pascoal National Park with the rest of south Brazil (Snyder et al. 2000). Map the species's current distribution within its Extent of Occurrence. Identify priority areas for conservation purposes. Research dietary and nesting requirements. Estimate the species's home range. Study the impact of forest fragmentation within its population. Implement an education programme ( L. Klemann-Júnior in litt. 2012).

References
Brown, K. S. J.; Brown, G. G. 1992. Habitat alteration and species loss in Brazilian forests. In: Whitmore, T.C.; Sayer, J.A. (ed.), Tropical forest and extinction, pp. 119-142. Chapman and Hall, London.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Conservation International; Fundação Biodiversitas; Sociedade Nordestina de Ecologia. 1995. Prioridades para conservação da biodiversidade da Mata Atlantica. Conservation International and Fundação Biodiversitas, Belo Horizonte.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Idéia Ambiental. undated. [Survey of the occurrence of the Red-browed Amazon in Espirito Santo state].

Klemann-Júnior, L.; Monteiro, T. V.; Straube, F. C. 2008. Amazona rhodocorytha. In: Machado, A. B. M.; Drummond, G. M.; Paglia, A. P. (ed.), Livro vermelho da fauna brasileira ameaçada de extinção, Volume 2, pp. 460-462. MMA and Fundação Biodiversi

Klemann-Júnior, L.; Scherer Neto, P.; Monteiro, T. M.; Ramos, F. M.; de Almeida, R. 2008. Mapeamento da distribuição e conservação do chauá (Amazona rhodocorytha) no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil. Ornitológia Neotropical 19(Suppl.): 183-196.

Klemann, L. 2006. Auf der Suche nach dem Chauá - Verbreitung, Häufigkeit und Zustand des Lebensraums der Rotscheitelamazone. ZGAP Mitteilungen 22(2): 18-20.

Reinschmidt, M.; Waugh, D. 2005. Successful breeding of the Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha). AFA Watchbird 32: 25-26.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Sweeney, R. G. 1996. The Red-Browed Amazon Parrot EEP Scheme. Avicultural Magazine 102: 106-108.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Klemann Jr., L., Martuscelli, P., Yamashita, C., Scherer Neto, P.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazona rhodocorytha. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Red-browed Amazon (Amazona rhodocorytha) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Salvadori, 1890)
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 2,700 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species