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Blue-cheeked Amazon Amazona dufresniana

Justification
This species is classified as Near Threatened because it has a moderately small population which is suspected to be declining significantly owing to habitat loss and possibly trade.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Distribution and population
Amazona dufresniana occurs in south-east Venezuela (Bolívar, with an isolated record in Amazonas), north Guyana (north of 5°N), north-east Suriname and north-east French Guiana (Wege and Collar 1991). There are reports from Pará and Amapá, Brazil, where its occurrence seems probable, but no conclusive records (Wege and Collar 1991, Collar 1995). The scarcity of records from frequently surveyed areas suggests that this is a low density and rather uncommon species, at least in some parts of its range (Wege and Collar 1991). In Guyana, "healthy populations" are known from the Aruka area in north-west Guyana between the Aruka and Amakuru rivers, Kaieteur National Park and the Kuribrong river, and the Iwokrama Forest Reserve (A. Narine in litt. 2010) 

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'rare to uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 3-13.2% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (37 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is therefore suspected to decline by <25% over three generations.

Ecology
It inhabits humid forest and cloud-forest in the lower subtropical zone but is also known from woodlands in forest-savanna mosaic in Venezuela (Wege and Collar 1991). Most birds in the Guianas have been reported from gallery forest (Wege and Collar 1991), but this may be an artefact of river transport use by observers (Juniper and Parr 1998). There are some seasonal movements, apparently in response to food availability, from interior to coastal Suriname in July-August (Wege and Collar 1991, Juniper and Parr 1998). It occurs up to 1,700 m in Venezuela and 560 m in Guyana (Wege and Collar 1991).

Threats
It has probably declined since the 19th century as a result of trapping for trade and habitat loss, particularly in the Gran Sabana region of Bolívar and parts of coastal Guianas (Wege and Collar 1991). It was internationally traded in small numbers during the 1980s, and this has continued especially in Guyana, where 321 were exported in 2002, and Suriname (CITES 2004). Annual export quotas are 520 for Guyana and 70 for Suriname (O. Ottema in litt. 2008). Some internal trade also continues, perhaps most frequently for food and pets in the far east of its range (Desenne and Strahl 1991, Wege and Collar 1991).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Recorded from Canaima National Park (Venezuela), Iwokrama Forest Reserve (Guyana) and Brownsberg Nature Park (Suriname). Conservation Actions Proposed
Study its ecology, seasonal movements and ability to persist in degraded and fragmented habitats. Effectively protect core areas of remaining habitat. Enforce restrictions on trade.

References
CITES. 2004. Proposal for transfer of Amazona finschi from Appendix II to Appendix I.

Collar, N. J. 1995. On the possible occurrence of Amazona dufresniana in Brazil (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae). Ararajuba 3: 70.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Desenne, P.; Strahl, S. D. 1991. Trade and the conservation status of the family Psittacidae in Venezuela. Bird Conservation International 1: 153-169.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Wege, D. C.; Collar, N. J. 1991. The Blue-cheeked Amazon Amazona dufresniana: a review. Bird Conservation International 1: 317-328.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazona dufresniana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Blue-cheeked Amazon (Amazona dufresniana) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Shaw, 1812)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 366,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species