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Lilac-crowned Amazon Amazona finschi
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Justification
This species has been uplisted to Endangered because it is suspected to be declining very rapidly based on recorded range contractions, and owing to unsustainable exploitation and habitat loss.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
30.5-34.5cm. Bright green parrot with red forehead and lilac crown and sides of neck. Primaries tipped with bluish violet, red patch on outer secondaries, beak pale horn and legs pale grey. Ages and sexes similar, but juvenile has brownish rather than amber eyes. Similar spp. White-fronted Parrot A. albifrons is smaller, with red patch on alula and upper primary coverts. Yellow-headed Parrot A. oratrix is told by heavier build, shorter tail and yellow on head. Voice Varied and raucous, including a shrill krih-krih, a rolling krreeeih, a deeper kyah'ha and an almost raven-like krra krra.

Distribution and population
Amazona finschi is endemic to the Pacific coast of Mexico (Forshaw 1989, Collar 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998). Historically, its range extended from southern Sonora and south-western Chihuahua to Oaxaca (Forshaw 1989, Howell and Webb 1995). The species has been practically extirpated from Oaxaca, as well as parts of Nayarit, Jalisco, Durango, Colima and Michoacán, and has undergone significant population declines in many areas of its original range, especially in the lowlands (Renton and Elias 2003). Despite local declines the species is most abundant in the states of Jalisco, Michoacán and Sinaloa (Renton and Elias 2003). A recent survey, carried out in appropriate habitat in 53 out of 77 50x50 km squares covering the species's entire range, estimated its population size to be 7,000-10,000 individuals (Renton and Elias 2003). The species has disappeared from 37% of the localities where it was historically recorded (Renton and Elias 2003, K. Renton in litt. 2005), and has shown a decline of 29% in its original distribution over the last 20 years (CITES 2004b). It is suspected to be in very rapid decline based on its disappearance from over 70% of its estimated former range (Marin-Togo et al. 2012).



Population justification
Renton and Elias (2003) estimate the global population at 7,000-10,000 individuals, based on surveys covering the majority of the species's global range. This roughly equates to 4,700-6,700 mature individuals. An estimate that 5,400 individuals each year are captured illegally in Mexico (Cantu et al. 2007), implies that the population estimate by Renton and Elias (2003) could be an underestimate, but this is retained in this assessment until better data and available.

Trend justification
This species's population is suspected to be in very rapid decline, based on a study by Marin-Togo et al. (2012), who estimated the current distribution of this species along the Pacific coast of Mexico and showed a 72.6% reduction from its estimated original distribution.

Ecology
It is reported to occur in deciduous and semi-deciduous forests along the coast, as well as pine-oak forests up to 2,000 m (Forshaw 1989). However, semi-deciduous forest along more humid valleys at 600-1,000 m is optimal breeding habitat (Renton and Salinas-Melgoza 1999, Renton and Elias 2003), and provides key food resources during the dry season (Renton 2001). A low tolerance to human perturbation is evident as the species is encountered more frequently in protected than in degraded woodland (Renton and Elias 2003). Seasonality plays an important role in the species's life history as it may trigger altitudinal and latitudinal migrations (Renton et al. 2001) and affect daily activity. The species shows a low rate of reproduction (Renton 2005). In Michoacán, nest sites were located preponderantly in relatively inaccessible rugged mountainous terrain, where the large stands of tropical semideciduous forests remain on steep slopes with an average gradient of 22° (Ortega-Rodríguez and Monterrubio-Rico 2008).


Threats
Capture for domestic and international trade is the major threat to wild populations. It is highly valued in trade (Cantu et al. 2007) and was the most captured Amazon parrot species in the early 1980's (Inigo-Elias and Ramos 1991). Illegal trade is intensive and widespread, and Amazona finschi is one of the most frequently confiscated Mexican parrots (K. Renton in litt. 2005). During 1981-2001, 4,061 individuals were recorded as traded internationally, of which 79% were exported directly from Mexico and 64% were taken from the wild (CITES 2004a). It remains one of the top five most-captured Mexican parrot species, with an estimated 5,400 individuals/year captured illegally in Mexico (Cantu et al. 2007). Adults and juveniles are easily netted in large numbers because of their habit of congregating at communal roost sites late in the afternoon (Renton 2005, K. Renton in litt. 2005). Chicks are commonly poached from nests (K. Renton in litt. 2005). During interviews with local people throughout the species's range, 75% reported poaching in their area (K. Renton in litt. 2005). In addition, this species is reported to require semi-deciduous forest with tall, mature trees for nesting, and may not adapt to nesting in modified areas (see Marin-Togo et al. 2012). Habitat loss and degradation, mostly for conversion to both small-holder and large-scale cultivation and pasture (K. Renton in litt. 2007, A. Salinas in litt. 2007, Ortega-Rodríguez and Monterrubio-Rico 2008), are serious threats, with semi-deciduous forest along the Pacific coast being lost at a greater rate than any other forest type in Mexico (Masera et al. 1996, K. Renton in litt. 2005), resulting in the destruction of nest sites and reduction in the extent of this crucial breeding habitat (Renton 2005). In Michoacán, the more easily accessible potential nesting areas, such as plains or rolling hills, have now been converted to extensive cattle ranching or agriculture (Ortega-Rodríguez and Monterrubio-Rico 2008). Large development projects, such as dams, have also resulted in loss of breeding habitat for the species (K. Renton in litt. 2007). Semi-deciduous forest now covers only 5,106 km2 within the species's range (Renton and Elias 2003, K. Renton in litt. 2005). Decreases in rainfall that could result from global climate change would result in declines in the reproductive potential of wild populations in tropical dry forests (K. Renton in litt. 2007). Despite the various pressures on habitats, in showing that the species has disappeared from more than 70% of its estimated former range, Marin-Togo et al. (2012) also showed that primary habitat comprised more than half the the area of absence for this species (60.7%), reinforcing the view that trapping pressure is the predominant threat to the species.



Conservation Actions Underway
In 1999, the Mexican government established a Plan for the Conservation, Protection and Recuperation of Psittacines in Mexico, within which A. finschi is considered a priority species (Macias Caballero et al. 2000). In 2004, the species was upgraded to CITES Appendix 1, and in 2007, a proposal was approved for the species to be upgraded in 2008 from 'Threatened' to 'Endangered' under Mexican wildlife law (K. Renton in litt. 2007). In Mexico, considerable efforts have been made to tackle illegal national trade, with at least 52 seizures during 1997-2003 (CITES 2004b). Inspections in Mexico resulted in the seizure of 266 live individuals of the species being offered illegally in the pet trade from 1995 to 2003 (CITES 2004b). The species is found in three Biosphere Reserves; Sierra de Alamos-Arroyo Cuchujaqui, southern Sonora, and Chamela-Cuixmala and Sierra de Manantlán, Jalisco, and is reported to occur in seven Important Bird Areas; however, some of these lack official protection or conservation programmes (CITES 2004a). Conservation Actions Proposed
Monitor population trends through regular surveys. Monitor levels of habitat destruction and degradation. Implement trade regulation strategies in the 1999 plan. Conduct outreach work and environmental education as outlined in the 1999 plan. Carry out habitat conservation and the recovery of wild populations as recommended in the 1999 Plan. Monitor the success of strategies from the 1999 plan. Protect the remaining stands of tropical forest stands on areas where the slope is greater than 6°: ideally all areas on steep slopes should be restored to forest, in order to provide habitat for all native wildlife (including Lilac-crowned Parrot) avoid soil erosion and promote alternative economic activities on the rugged coastal areas such as recreation and tourism (Ortega-Rodríguez and Monterrubio-Rico 2008).

Related state of the world's birds case studies

References
Caballero, C. M.; Elias, E. E. I.; Ernesto, C.; Hoeflich, E. 2000. Proyecto para la conservación, manejo y aprovechamiento sustentable de los psitácidos en México. Primera Edición julio, México.

Cantu, J. C.; Sanchez, M. E.; Grosslet, M.; Silva, J. 2007. The illegal parrot trade in Mexico: a comprehensive assessment. . . Defenders of wildlife/Teyeliz.

CITES. 2004. Actions implemented by Mexico for conservation and management of the Lilac-crowned Parrot (Amazona finschi): considerations for its transfer from Appendix II to Appendix I.

CITES. 2004. Proposal for transfer of Amazona finschi from Appendix II to Appendix I.

Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Forshaw, J. M.; Cooper, W. T. 1989. Parrots of the world. Blandford Press, London.

Howell, S. N. G.; Webb, S. 1995. A guide to the birds of Mexico and northern Central America. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

IUCN. 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (ver. 2012.1). Available at: http://www.iucnredlist.org. (Accessed: 19 June 2012).

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Marin-Togo, M. C.; Monterrubio-Rico, T. C.; Renton, K.; Rubio-Rocha, Y.; Macias-Caballero, C.; Ortega-Rodriguez, J. M.; Cancino-Murillo, R. 2012. Reduced current distribution of Psittacidae on the Mexican Pacific coast: potential impacts of habitat loss and capture for trade. Biodiversity Conservation 21: 451-473.

Masera, O. R.; Ordóñez, M. J.; Dirzo, R. 1997. Carbon emissions from Mexican forests: current situation and long-term scenarios. Climatic Change 35(3): 265-295.

Ortega-Rodríguez, J. M.; Monterrubio-Rico, T. C. 2008. Características geográficas de la ubicación de nidos del Loro corona lila (Amazona finschi) en la Costa del Pacífico en Michoacán, México. Ornitologia Neotropical 19(3): 427-439.

Renton, K. 2001. Lilac-crowned Parrot diet and food resource availability: resource tracking by a parrot seed predator. Condor 103: 62-69.

Renton, K. 2005. Incorporation of Amazona finschi into the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.

Renton, K.; Elías, E. E. I. 2003. AS001: evaluación del estado actual de las poblaciones de loro corona lila (Amazona finschi) en México.

Renton, K.; Salinas Melgoza, A.; Rivera, J. H. V. 2001. Migración estacional altitudinal por el loro corona lila y el trogón citrino en el bosque tropical seco: implicaciones para conservación de ecosistemas. Resúmenes V Congreso sobre el Estudio y Conservación de las Aves en México, Morelia, Michoacán, 20-23 de Noviembre 2001, pp. 30. Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo/CIPAMEX, Morelia, Mexico.

Renton, K.; Salinas-Melgoza, A. 1999. Nesting behaviour of the Lilac-crowned Parrot. Wilson Bulletin 111: 488-493.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Capper, D., Ekstrom, J., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Temple, H.

Contributors
Bonilla, C., Renton, K. & Salinas, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazona finschi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Lilac-crowned Amazon (Amazona finschi) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Sclater, 1864)
Population size 4700-6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) -
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species