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Tucuman Amazon Amazona tucumana

Justification
This species is classified as Vulnerable as it is experiencing a rapid population decline owing to habitat loss and capture for the cagebird trade.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
31 cm. Green throughout, with feathers strongly edged black to give scaled effect on head, nape, upper mantle and underparts; no scaling on undertail coverts, lower mantle and wings; forehead and sometimes lores red, bare orbital skin white; lower thighs orange-yellow; undertail coverts with yellowish tinge; primary coverts red; primaries tipped dark blue; tail tipped yellowish. Bill yellowish-horn. Immature has all-green thighs.

Distribution and population
Amazona tucumana is found in north-west Argentina, and southern Bolivia, where it is known from 12 localities in Tarija, Chuquisaca and Santa Cruz departments (A. Maccormick in litt. 2005, R. Hoyer in litt. 2005, L. Rivera in litt. 2012). A recent study of the status and distribution of the species in Argentina recorded 6,015 individuals (Rivera et al. 2007), and estimated the Argentinian population to number c.10,000 bird, but around 20,000 individuals were exported from Argentina in the mid to late 1980s suggesting a substantial population decline may have occurred. After it was placed on Appendix I of CITES in response to this, international trade was effectively cut off, although local exploitation continues. However, it does not seem that populations have recovered, and habitat loss is of concern, particularly in Argentina where it is highly degraded and there are only a few small and isolated woodland remnants (L. Rivera in litt. 2004). Threats to habitat are less severe in Bolivia, but the species has declined there and is projected to continue to do so (A. Maccormick in litt. 2005). The main concentrations of this species in Bolivia occur in Montes Chapeados, Villa Serrano and Tariquía Flora and Fauna National Reserve, with 1,643 individuals recorded at various sites during a recent study (Rivera et al. 2009). A dedicated national population census and monitoring initiative is required to provide an estimate of the Bolivian population and to locate, measure and monitor local populations and post-breeding roosts (A. Maccormick in litt. 2005).

Population justification
A recent study of the status and distribution of the species in Argentina recorded 6,015 individuals, and estimated the Argentinean population to be approximately 10,000 birds (L. Rivera in litt. 2004). In addition, 1,643 individuals were recorded at various sites in Bolivia during another recent study. The total population is thus placed in the band 10,000-19,999 individuals (L. Rivera in litt. 2012). This is equivalent to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Survey results, observations on habitat loss and the species's local occurrence, and data on capture and trade strongly suggest that its population is undergoing a rapid population decline (L. Rivera in litt. 2011).

Ecology
The species inhabits open mountain woodland in Andean yungas forest dominated by pure stands of Alnus acuminata or Podocarpus parlatorei, from 1,600-2,600 m in the breeding season (between November and February). At this time, the species gathers in large flocks, probably including individuals from several breeding localities. In the non-breeding season, it is present in several protected areas including El Rey National Park, and descends to lower elevations. The main tree species used for nesting and feeding are P. parlatorei, Juglans australis and those in the Myrtaceae family (L. Rivera in litt. 2011, 2012).

Threats
Around 20,000 individuals were exported from Argentina in the mid to late 1980s (L. Rivera in litt. 2004). In the 1980s, c.5,400 individuals were captured in Bolivia for the international pet trade prior to it being listed by CITES (Rivera et al. 2009). After it was placed on Appendix I of CITES, international trade was effectively cut off, although local exploitation continues at a reduced scale (L. Rivera in litt. 2004, Rivera et al. 2009). Nest-raiding even takes place in protected areas in Bolivia, with whole broods removed from c.50 nests annually in Tariquía Flora and Fauna National Reserve. The species's population in Bolivia has apparently not recovered to its former levels (Rivera et al. 2009). Habitat in Argentina is highly degraded and consists of small, isolated fragments. The species's main nesting and feeding tree species are also targeted for logging by timber operations (L. Rivera in litt. 2011). In Bolivia, the regeneration of suitable forest is limited by burning to maintain extensive cattle grazing. Its habitat is also threatened by slash-and-burn agriculture and wildfires (Rivera et al. 2009, L. Rivera in litt. 2012). It is considered Vulnerable in Bolivia (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua 2009).


Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I, although the convention is not respected in Bolivia (A. B. Hennessey in litt. 2012). Present in several protected areas including El Rey National Park, Argentina, mostly in the non-breeding season (L. Rivera in litt. 2012). In 2006, Serranía del Iñao National Park and Sustainable Management Area was designated, providing the foundations for actions to conserve one of the species's largest roosts in Bolivia, which is located nearby (Rivera et al. 2009). A species conservation action plan is currently being developed for each of its native countries (L. Rivera in litt. 2012).Conservation Actions Proposed
Enforce ban on local trade (L. Rivera in litt. 2012). Assess the current population size. Produce a species action plan. Carry out further research to clarify the extent of the current threat from trade. Effectively protect core areas of remaining habitat; review its habitat requirements, and supplement nest sites using boxes where appropriate (A. B. Hennessey in litt. 2012). Tackle unsustainable resource use and illegal activities in protected areas. Designate Montes Chapeados a protected area.


References
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua. 2009. Libro rojo de la fauna silvestre de vertebrados de Bolivia. . Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua, La Paz, Bolivia.

Rivera, L.; Llanos, R. R.; Politi, N.; Hennessey, B.; Bucher, E. H. 2010. The Near Threatened Tucumán Parrot Amazona tucumana in Bolivia: insights for a global assessment. Oryx 44(1): 110-113.

Rivera, L.; Politi, N.; Bucher, E. H. 2007. Decline of the Tucumán Parrot Amazona tucumana in Argentina: present status and conservation needs. Oryx 41(1): 101-105.

Rojas, R. E.; Montenegro, P. Y.; Rivera, L. O. 2009. Amazona tucumana . In: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua (ed.), Libro rojo de la fauna silvestre de vertebrados de Bolivia, pp. 387-388. Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Agua, La Paz, Bolivia.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Harding, M., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J., Khwaja, N.

Contributors
Hoyer, R., Maccormack, A., Rivera, L., Hennessey, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazona tucumana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Tucuman Amazon (Amazona tucumana) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Cabanis, 1885)
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 69,200 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species