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Yellow-billed Amazon Amazona collaria

Justification
This species is classified as Vulnerable because it has a small and fragmented range, with suitable habitat declining in extent, area and quality, primarily owing to logging and forest clearance for bauxite mining. Numbers are also declining because of trapping.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Identification
28 cm. Chunky, green parrot with white facial markings. Green with white lores and frontal bar, blue forecrown, pink throat and upper breast, bluish primaries, and yellow bill. Similar spp. Black-billed Parrot A. agilis is smaller, duller and greener, has black bill, and flies with shallower and faster wing beats. Voice High tah-tah-eeeeep and bugling tuk-tuk-tuk-taaah in flight lower-pitched than A. agilis. Hints Birds are usually seen in pairs or small flocks, occasionally with A. agilis, and best located by call.

Distribution and population
Amazona collaria is mainly found in wet areas of Jamaica (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The largest populations occur from Cockpit Country to Mount Diablo and in the John Crow Mountains (Juniper and Parr 1998), and it is local in the Blue Mountains (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). It remains fairly common in suitable habitat, the population in Cockpit Country alone numbers 5,000 - 8,000 territorial pairs (Koenig 2001), but overall both range and population have decreased in the latter part of the 20th century (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Population justification
The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall into the band 10,000-19,999 individuals. This equates to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be declining at a slow rate, as a result of habitat loss and degradation and trapping.

Ecology
It inhabits mid-level, wet limestone forest at elevations up to 1,200 m, flying considerable distances to feeding areas that include sea-level plantations (Collar 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Breeding takes place from March to August, in tree-cavities and, occasionally, rock-crevices (Collar 1997, Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000).

Threats
Recent declines are probably attributable to shifting cultivation, forest clearance, bauxite mining, and trapping for the cage-bird trade and local consumption (Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The cutting of trees to trap nestlings may significantly reduce available nest-sites (Juniper and Parr 1998, BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). The primary cause of nest failure is poaching for use as a cage-bird, compounded by a loss of nest trees owing to illegal timber extraction in bauxite mining areas (S. Koenig in litt. 2007). Non-native Amazona parrots occasionally escape during the hurricane season and have had to be shot to prevent hybridisation with this species (S. Koenig in litt. 2007).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It has been listed as threatened in Jamaica since 1986 (Juniper and Parr 1998). Since 1995, there has been work to delineate its range, estimate population sizes, identify factors limiting reproductive performance and train local people in research methods and techniques for long-term monitoring (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Habitat in the Blue and John Crow Mountains has been declared a national park, but enforcement and management are weak (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). There is an on-going, high profile public awareness campaign to prevent bauxite mining in Cockpit Country by having the area declared "closed to mining" by Minister's Discretion (S. Koenig in litt. 2007). Discussions have initiated which will hopefully lead to the banning of the importation of psittacines to Jamaica (S. Koenig in litt. 2007).  Captive breeding populations exist
Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to delineate range and assess numbers (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Declare Cockpit Country "closed to mining". Ensure de facto protection of the national park in the Blue and John Crow Mountains (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000). Design and implement education programmes in and adjacent to the species's occupied range (BirdLife Jamaica Parrot Project in litt. 1998, 2000) and develop captive breeding populations. Enforce its legal protection. Ban the import of non-native parrots.

References
Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Koenig, S. E. 2001. The breeding biology of Black-billed Parrot Amazona agilis and Yellow-billed Parrot Amazona collaria in Cockpit Country, Jamaica. Bird Conservation International 11: 205-225.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.

Contributors
Koenig, S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Amazona collaria. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 01/10/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Yellow-billed Amazon (Amazona collaria) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Linnaeus, 1758)
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 5,400 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species