This species is classified as Near Threatened because, although it is not as rare as once feared, the overall population is still moderately small and continues to decline owing mainly to trapping and destruction of nest sites. it has a small range, but this is not yet severely fragmented or restricted to few locations.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
28-33 cm. A large green parrot with pale red chin, throat and lower face, white forehead and eye-ring and blue primaries. Similar spp. No other Amazona parrot occurs sympatrically. Voice Very noisy; a wide variety of squawks and screeches with variation between populations. Hints Best located by noisy calls, often seen flying over forest.
Bond, J. 1979. Birds of the West Indies. Collins, London.
Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
GÃ¡lvez-Aguilera, X.; Berovides-Alvarez, V.; Wiley, J. W.; Rivera Rosales, J. 1999. Population size of Cuban Parrots Amazona leucocephala and Sandhill Cranes Grus canadensis and community involvement in their conservation in northern Isla de la Juventud, Cuba. Bird Conservation International 9: 97-112.
Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.
King, W. B. 1981. Endangered birds of the world: the ICBP bird Red Data Book. Smithsonian Institution Press and International Council for Bird Preservation [bound reissue of King 1978-1979], Washington, D.C.
O'Brien, J.J., Stahala, C., Mori, G.R., Callaham, M.A. and Bergh, C.M. 2006. Effects of prescribed fire on conditions inside a Cuban parrot (Amazona leucocephala) surrogate nesting cavity on Great Abaco, Bahamas. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 118(4): 508-512.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Stahala, C.; Stafford, M. L. 2004. Caribbean underground: Bahama parrots in the wild. PsittaScene 16: 2-5.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Waugh, D. 2006. Hilfe fur die Papageien in Zentral-Kuba. Papageien: 319-322.
Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Wege, D.
Kirkconnell, A., Mitchell, A.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2015) Species factsheet: Amazona leucocephala. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/04/2015. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2015) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/04/2015.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Near Threatened|
|Species name author||(Linnaeus, 1758)|
|Population size||Unknown mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||17,600 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|