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Red-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops
BirdLife is updating this factsheet for the 2016 Red List
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This species is classified as Vulnerable because the estimated Extent of Occurrence (and hence the population size) is very small, severely fragmented and declining, probably rapidly.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

Taxonomic note

22 cm. Largely green, bulky parrot. Red forecrown, lores, cheeks and supercilium, yellow-streaked ear-coverts. Green underparts and upperparts, red shoulder, blue secondary coverts and dark bluish primaries. Dark blue tail. Similar spp. Allopatric with other Haplopsittaca. Several sympatric Pionus are all slightly larger, with proportionally shorter tails and, in flight, wings do not reach above plane of back. Similar structure to Pionopsitta, but not elevationally sympatric. Voice Harsh screeching ch-ek che-ek with second note higher, also eek eek eek. Call when perched thrut.

Distribution and population
Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops is confined to the east Andes in south Ecuador (Morona-Santiago, Azuay and Loja) and contiguous ranges of north-west Peru (Piura and north Cajamarca [I. Franke per J. Fjeldså in litt. 1999, J. P. O'Neill in litt. 1999, Schulenberg et al. 2007]). In Ecuador, its range has been estimated at 2,839 km2 (Krabbe et al. 1998), but this excludes areas of known and projected occurrence in Morona-Santiago and Cordillera de Cutucú Oeste. A revised estimate of suitable habitat suggests that its total range is likely to be c.9,940 km2. It is found in fewer than 15 localities in Ecuador (J. Freile in litt. 2012): La Libertad, Alto Río Palora, Cajanuma (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001), Arenales, Jimbura, Matanga (Krabbe et al. 2001), Cajas (Tinoco and Astudillo undated), Fasañán (Freile 2004), El Sauce and Selva Alegre (Jacobs & Walker 1999), Jima and Santa Rita (Chapman 1926), Torré and Huashapamba (Toyne et al. 1995), Mazán (King 1989). It is generally local and uncommon, and has declined seriously in recent years. A significant population inhabits the Cordillera de Chilla, Loja, where it was present at two of three forest patches surveyed in 1995, at densities of 88 birds/km2 and 25 birds/km2, with an estimated population of c.350 at the former (Jacobs and Walker 1999).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. It is described as rare to uncommon and local throughout its range. This estimate is equivalent to 3,750-14,999 individuals, rounded here to 3,500-15,000 individuals.

Trend justification
A rapid and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat destruction and fragmentation.

It inhabits very wet, upper montane cloud-forest and low, open forest and shrubby growth adjacent to the páramo, at 2,500-3,500 m. It has been reported from fragmented and degraded forest near pasture, and there is some evidence to suggest tolerance of (if not preference for) secondary habitat (Juniper and Parr 1998). It is usually solitary, or in pairs and small groups of up to five, sometimes up to 20 (Toyne and Flanagan 1997, Jacobs and Walker 1999). It nests in tree-cavities in October-January, with eggs in late November, chicks in early December, and fledglings in late January (Toyne and Flanagan 1996). Its diet includes shoots, flowers, berries and seeds (Toyne and Flanagan 1997).

Its decline is attributed to habitat destruction and fragmentation, largely through slash-and-burn conversion to agricultural small holdings (Jacobs and Walker 1999). Serious losses can be expected owing to logging and forest degradation, by burning and grazing, in Ecuador's Cordillera de Chilla, Loja, although in 1995, large areas of forest were still extant (Toyne and Flanagan 1997, Jacobs and Walker 1999).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. There are a few records from Podocarpus and Sangay National Parks (J. Freile in litt. 2012), and a small population is protected within the community-owned forest at Huashapamba, near Saraguro, Loja (Toyne and Flanagan 1997).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Direct efforts to conserve remaining cloud-forest around Saraguro. Protect forest betwen Selva Alegre and Manu in the Chilla Mountains. Prevent mining in Podocarpus National Park, and throughout the high Andean forests in the Saraguro region and Azuay province (J. Freile in litt. 2012). Survey in Peru to assess whether viable populations survive (Snyder et al. 2000). Monitor the population. Assess the extent to which the species can survive in secondary habitats.

Chapman, F. M. 1926. Distribution of bird-life in Ecuador. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 55.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Freile, J. F. 2004. Range extensions and other noteworthy and new bird records from mainland Ecuador. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 124: 188-202.

Jacobs, M. D.; Walker, J. S. 1999. Density estimates of birds inhabiting fragments of cloud forest in southern Ecuador. Bird Conservation International 9: 73-79.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

King, J. R. 1989. Notes on the birds of the Rio Mazan Valley, Azuay Province, Ecuador, with special reference to Leptosittaca branickii, Hapalopsittaca amazonina pyrrhops and Metallura baroni. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 109: 140-147.

Krabbe, N., Moore, J. V. ; Coopmans, P.; Lysinger, M.; Ridgely, R. S. 2001. Birds of the Ecuadorian highlands. John V. Moore Nature Recordings, San Jose, CA, USA.

Krabbe, N.; Skov, F.; Fjeldså, J.; Petersen, I. K. 1998. Avian diversity in the Ecuadorian Andes - an atlas of distribution of Andean forest birds and conservation priorities. Centre for Research on Cultural and Biological Diversity of Andean Rainsforests (DIVA), Ronde, Denmark.

Ridgely, R. S.; Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution and taxonomy. Cornell University Press and Christopher Helm, Ithaca and London.

Schulenberg, T. S., Stotz, D. F. Lane, D. F. O'Neill, J. P. Parker, T. A. III. 2007. Birds of Peru.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Stotz, D. F. ; Lane, D. F.; O'Neill, J. P.; Parker III, T. A. 2007. Birds of Peru. Prnceton University Press, Prnceton, NJ, USA.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Tinoco, B.; Astudillo. P. Undated. Guía de campo para la observación de aves del Parque Nacional Cajas. ETAPA, Cuenca, Ecuador.

Toyne, E. P.; Flanagan, J. N. M. 1996. First nest record of Red-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops. Cotinga: 43-45.

Toyne, E. P.; Flanagan, J. N. M. 1997. Observations on the breeding, diet and behaviour of the Red-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops in southern Ecuador. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 117: 257-263.

Toyne, E. P.; Flanagan, J. N. M.; Jeffcote, M. T. 1995. Vocalizations of the endangered Red-faced Parrot Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops in southern Ecuador. Ornitologia Neotropical: 125-128.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Fjeldså, J., O'Neill, J., Freile, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Red-faced parrot (Hapalopsittaca pyrrhops) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Salvin, 1876)
Population size 2500-9999 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 9,940 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species