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Vulturine Parrot Pyrilia vulturina

Justification

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and its dependence on primary forest and sensitivity to fragmentation, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Gypopsitta vulturina Collar and Andrew (1988), Gypopsitta vulturina BirdLife International (2004), Gypopsitta vulturina Stotz et al. (1996), Gypopsitta vulturina Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Gypopsitta vulturina BirdLife International (2008)

Identification
23 cm. Small, green parrot. Its head is bare and covered in dark bristles. Has a complete yellow feathered collar, with black on the nape and sides of neck. The rest of the body is predominantly green, with an orange-yellow shoulder and an olive yellow breast, black primaries and a blue tip to the tail. Immature has a feathered green head, and lacks the yellow collar and black bordering.

Distribution and population
Pyrilia vulturina is endemic to north Brazil. Its range extends from the Rio Madeira east to Maranhão (del Hoyo et al. 1997). It is naturally rare, and may be restricted to the areas around major rivers within this region, which would mean its range size is overestimated (A. Lees in litt. 2011).




Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'uncommon' (Stotz et al. 1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 37.1-54.8% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (21 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Although the species may have some susceptibility to hunting and/or trapping, it also appears to have some degree of tolerance of habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt 2011). It is therefore suspected to decline by 30-49% over three generations.

Ecology
This species occupies both "terra firme" forest (with no flooding) and "várzea" (seasonally flooded forest). It is thought that its bare head may be an adaptation for feeding on large fruit, whose juice would mat feathers (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Threats

The primary threat to this species is accelerating deforestation in the Amazon basin as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Whilst it shows some tolerance of habitat degradation, it may also be susceptible to hunting (A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A.

Contributors
Lees, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pyrilia vulturina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Kuhl, 1820)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 886,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species