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Saffron-headed Parrot Pyrilia pyrilia

Justification
This species has a moderately small population which is suspected to be declining, and it therefore qualifies as Near Threatened. It is considered nationally Vulnerable in Colombia (Renjifo et al. 2002) and Venezuela (Sharpe 2008).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Gypopsitta pyrilia BirdLife International (2008), Pionopsitta pyrilia AOU checklist (1998 + supplements), Pionopsitta pyrilia BirdLife International (2000), Pionopsitta pyrilia Stotz et al. (1996), Pionopsitta pyrilia BirdLife International (2004), Pionopsitta pyrilia Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993)

Identification
24 cm. Striking, green parrot with yellow head. Mostly green with bright yellow head (washed orange behind eye), white orbital patch and dusky lores and nares, yellow shoulders, blackish primaries, red carpal area and underwing-coverts, brown breast-band, red flanks, yellow thighs and green tail with dusky blue tip. Immature has green head, shoulders and carpal area. Similar spp. Adult Brown-hooded Parrot P. haematotis lacks yellow head and immature has dull brown on crown. Sympatric Pionus spp. are larger, have a different flight action, red undertail-coverts and lack the yellow head. Voice Reedy cheweek.

Distribution and population
Gypopsitta pyrilia occurs in east Darién, Panama, north Colombia and north-west Venezuela. There are two records from north-west Ecuador, a presumed wandering pair in Cotacachi-Cayapas National Park and a flock of c. 20 in Pedro Vicente Maldonado, north-west Pichincha (Ridgely and Greenfield 2001), but its status is unclear (J. F. Freile in litt. 2000, Ridgely and Greenfield 2001). It is now rare in accessible areas, but remains common in the Serranía de las Quinchas, (Boyacá), and at Cerro de la Paz (Santander) (Donegan et al. 2003), Colombia and is unlikely to have declined significantly in Chocó, Colombia, or Darién (G. R. Angehr in litt. 1999, G. Stiles in litt. 1999). There are few recent records, but it may still be numerous at the northern base of the Andes, Cordoba, northern Antioquia and Bolívar, and in the Magdalena valley, east Caldas and south-east Antioquia, Colombia (Hilty and Brown 1986, A. Cuervo in litt. 1999). It seems to have declined in Venezuela, where recent records are from the Mérida area, the south-east slopes of the Cordillera de Mérida, Barinas (Kirwan and Sharpe 1999, C. Sharpe, J. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999) and Sierra de Perijá (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2011). The total population may have dropped below 10,000 individuals (Juniper and Parr 1998, G. Stiles in litt. 1999). Indeed, the western population (west of Sinu) is thought to be 2,000-4,000 individuals (most intact habitat), the central population (Serranía de San Lucas) is probably much fewer than 1,000 individuals, the western slope of eastern Cordillera is estimated at approximately 1,000 individuals and the eastern slope of eastern Cordillera and Merida perhaps less than 1,000 individuals (C. Sharpe, J. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number at least 7,000 individuals in total, roughly equivalent to 4,700 mature individuals (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 2006).

Trend justification
A slow to moderate and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of rates of habitat loss: its favoured habitat is severely threatened (T. Donegan in litt. 2006).

Ecology
It inhabits humid lowland forest, forest edge and tall secondary growth to c.1,000 m (Hilty and Brown 1986), moving, probably seasonally, to cloud-forest as high as 1,650 m in Venezuela (Hilty 2003). Specimens in breeding condition have been taken during March-June in Colombia, with juveniles seen in July in the Serranía de Perijá (Hilty and Brown 1986). Most records come from mature forest and it is not thought to move far between fragments (P. Salaman in litt. 2006).


Threats
Habitat loss has been occurring in the Magdalena valley for at least four centuries, but accelerated markedly throughout the 20th century (Stiles et al. 1999), and remains the chief threat in Colombia. Most forest on the eastern slopes of the Serranía de San Lucas has been lost since 1996 (A. Cuervo in litt. 1999, L. Dávalos in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Causes include logging, settlement, agriculture and mining (Cuervo and Salaman 1999, A. Cuervo in litt. 1999, L. Dávalos in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Stiles et al. 1999). In Colombia, some birds are captured for the pet trade (G. Stiles in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000). It could be affected by stream pollution caused by mining and cocaine production (L. Dávalos in litt. 1999, P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). In Sierra de Perijá, Venezuela, it is also hunted for food (C. J. Sharpe in litt. 2011)

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Extensive, intact habitat is protected in Venezuela and Panama (G. R. Angehr in litt. 1999, C. Sharpe, J. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999). Paramillo National Park, Antioquia, officially protects 4,600 km2, but human settlement and associated threats are continuing unabated (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). Conservation Actions Proposed
Determine its population size and distribution (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, C. Sharpe, J. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000). Assess range-wide threats (C. Sharpe, J. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999). Study its biology and movements (C. Sharpe, J. Rodríguez and F. Rojas-Suárez in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000). Protect habitat in the Serranía de San Lucas and north-west Chocó (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999).

References
Cuervo, A.; Salaman, P. 1999. Specific threats to the two remaining refuges for Crax alberti.

Donegan, T. M.; Salaman, P. G. W.; Cuervo, A. M. 2003. Wattled guan Aburria Aburri in Serrania de San Lucas, Northern Colombia. 13: 11-14.

Hilty, S. L. 2003. Birds of Venezuela. A&C Black, London.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Kirwan, G. M.; Sharpe, C. J. 1999. Range extensions and notes on the status of little-known species from Venezuela. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 38-47.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Ridgely, R. S.; Greenfield, P. J. 2001. The birds of Ecuador: status, distribution and taxonomy. Cornell University Press and Christopher Helm, Ithaca and London.

Ridgely, R. S.; Greenfield, P. J.; Guerrero, M. 1998. An annotated list of the birds of mainland Ecuador. Fundación Ornitológica del Ecuador, CECIA, Quito.

Sharpe, C.J. 2008. Aves. In: Rodríguez, J.P. & Rojas-Suárez, F. (ed.), Libro Rojo de la fauna Venezolana, 3rd edition, pp. 122-157. Provita & Shell Venezuela, S.A.,, Caracas, Venezuela.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Stiles, F. G.; Rosselli, L.; Bohórquez, C. I. 1999. New and noteworthy records of birds from the middle Magdalena valley of Colombia. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 113-129.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

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Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Angehr, G., Cuervo, A., Donegan, T., Dávalos, L., Freile, J., Rodríguez, J., Rojas-Suárez, F., Salaman, P., Sharpe, C J, Stiles, F.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pyrilia pyrilia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Saffron-headed parrot (Gypopsitta pyrilia) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Bonaparte, 1853)
Population size 4700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 153,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species