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White-bellied Parrot Pionites leucogaster

Justification

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, and its potential susceptibility to hunting, it is suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Identification
23 cm. Small, green-and-yellow parakeet. Forehead to nape orange, with a yellow face, neck and upper breast. Dull green back and wings, with dark blue primaries and orange axillaries. White lower breast and belly. Flanks, thighs, rump and tail are bright green, with a yellow vent.

Distribution and population
Pionites leucogaster is a polytypic Amazonian species. It is common across most of its range. Subspecies xanthomeria is abundant in parts of east Peru, and is present in Manu National Park. It also occurs in north Bolivia, although it may have been extirpated from Santa Cruz as a result of habitat destruction. This taxon's range extends as far as west Brazil. Subspecies xanthurus occurs in Brazil, from Rio Purús and Rio Juruá to Rio Madeira. The nominate subspecies leucogaster of north Brazil is distributed from Rio Madeira to Maranhão (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Population justification
The global population size has not been quantified, but this species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. (1996).

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 26.2-35.5% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (24 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, and the fact that it is intolerant of habitat degradation and small fragments, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.

Ecology
This species occurs along watercourses in lowland tropical rainforest. It preferentially occurs in "várzea" (seasonally flooded forest), although it is also found in "terra firme" forest (with no flooding). In the east of its range it is known to breed in January; the nest is made in a tree hollow c.30 m above the ground (del Hoyo et al. 1997).

Threats
The primary threat to this species is accelerating rates of deforestation in the Amazon basin (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Despite being common in undisturbed landscapes, it is not thought to be tolerant of secondary forest or agropastoral land and appears restricted to alluvial habitats. It may also be susceptible to hunting (A. Lees in litt. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
None is known.

Conservation Actions Proposed

Expand the protected area network to effectively protect IBAs. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Khwaja, N., Symes, A.

Contributors
Lees, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pionites leucogaster. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - White-bellied parrot (Pionites leucogaster) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Kuhl, 1820)
Population size Unknown mature individuals
Population trend Stable
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,560,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species