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Spot-winged Parrotlet Touit stictopterus

Justification
This species apparently occurs very locally and at low densities in a declining habitat. Its population is likely to be small and declining, with very small subpopulations at each known locality. It therefore qualifies as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Synonym(s)
Touit stictoptera BirdLife International (2000), Touit stictoptera Collar et al. (1994), Touit stictoptera Collar and Andrew (1988), Touit stictoptera Stotz et al. (1996), Touit stictoptera Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Touit stictoptera BirdLife International (2004)

Identification
17-18 cm. Chunky, dusky green parrotlet. Overall green with dusky brown wings, whitish tips to coverts and orange tips to two outer median coverts. Female and immature have green wing-coverts with black bases. Similar spp. Scarlet-shouldered Parrotlet T. huetii shows conspicuous red (and sometimes yellow) on wings. Cobalt-winged Parakeet Brotogeris cyanoptera has pointed tail and blue wings. Voice In flight, two or three rasping raah-reh notes, with lower first note. Apparently silent when perched. Hints Moves silently around canopy, and has non-undulating flight with deep, steady wingbeats.

Distribution and population
Touit stictopterus occurs disjunctly through Colombia (Cundinamarca, Meta, Cauca), Ecuador (Napo, Morona-Santiago, Zamora-Chinchipe) and northern Peru (Cajamarca, San Martín and Amazonas [Clements and Shany 2001, Brooks et al. 2009]). A recent record from Manu Biosphere Reserve was erroneous (H. Lloyd in litt. 2001). It is uncommon and local throughout its range, and may already be extinct (or nearly so) in Colombia (Juniper and Parr 1998), where recent surveys in apparently suitable habitat have failed to produce any records (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999). In 1983, 5-25 were recorded daily at Jesús del Monte, San Martín (Davis 1986), but it has been recorded less frequently (C. Bushell in litt. 1999), or not at all, by subsequent observers at this site (Wege and Long 1995), suggesting a decline (C. Bushell in litt. 1999). However, it appears to occur naturally at low density (Juniper and Parr 1998), and may sometimes be overlooked and thus more widespread than records suggest.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 39.4-39.9% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (15 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Given the susceptibility of the species to hunting and/or trapping, it is therefore suspected to decline by ≥30% over three generations.

Ecology
It inhabits the upper tropical and lower subtropical zone, favouring tall, humid, montane forest at 1,050-1,700 m, but has occasionally been reported from savanna-like woodland as low as 500 m, and from stunted ridge-top forest up to 2,300 m. It is often seen in small flocks of 5-12, sometimes more (Juniper and Parr 1998), but occasionally in pairs (J. Hornbuckle in litt. 1999). It feeds on fruit, including Ficus spp., and reportedly raids maize crops (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Threats
Its fragmented habitats are affected by continuing deforestation (Snyder et al. 2000), especially in Colombia. Improvements to road networks lead to deforestation associated with human settlement of new areas. Habitat loss is also known to be occurring in the Cordillera de Cutucú and at Jesús del Monte.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. It has been recorded in Sumaco Protection Forest, Cordillera de Cutucú Protection Forest, Sangay National Park and Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve, Ecuador, with an old specimen collected in Serranía de la Macarena National Park.Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess its distribution, population status and current threats through field surveys (Snyder et al. 2000). Maintain and improve the integrity of national parks in which the species occurs. Designate a protected area in the Cordillera del Cóndor, and involve local people in the land-use management of this region (Schulenberg and Awbrey 1997).

References
Brooks, D. M.; O'Neill, J. P.; Foster, M. S.; Mark, T.; Dauphiné, N.; Franke, I. J. 2009. Avifauna of the Pongos Basin, Amazonas Department, Peru. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 121(1): 54-74.

Clements, J. F.; Shany, N. 2001. A field guide to the birds of Peru. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Davis, T. J. 1986. Distribution and natural history of some birds from the departments of San Martín and Amazonas, northern Peru. Condor 88: 50-56.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Schulenberg, T. S.; Awbrey, K. 1997. The Cordillera del Cóndor region of Ecuador and Peru: a biological assessment. Conservation International, Washington, DC.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Wege, D. C.; Long, A. J. 1995. Key Areas for threatened birds in the Neotropics. BirdLife International, Cambridge, U.K.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Bushell, C., Hornbuckle, J., Lloyd, H., Salaman, P.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Touit stictopterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Sclater, 1862)
Population size 600-1700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 33,100 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species