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Mexican Parrotlet Forpus cyanopygius
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The species has been uplisted to Near Threatened as its population has likely reduced at a rate approaching 30% over three generations (12 years) based on estimated levels of exploitation and a reduction in area of occupancy and extent of occurrence; it almost meets the requirements for listing as threatened under criteria A2cd+3cd+4cd. If declines are found to exceed 30% then the species would qualify for uplisting to Vulnerable. If there is evidence to suggest that the global population of this species is <10,000 mature individuals, and it is suffering a continuing decline of  >10% in three generations (up to 100 years in the future), it would also qualify for uplisting to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Distribution and population
This species is restricted to Western Mexico from south-east Sonora to Colima and on Tres Marías Island (Collar and Boesman 2014). A recent study by Marín-Togo et al. (2012) found that the current distribution of the species along the Pacific coast of Mexico was 61.4% smaller than its estimated original distribution. The species was absent from many areas in the southern area of its range. However, 80% of areas where the species is now absent contained primary habitat, indicating that factors other than habitat loss may be responsible for the observed reduction in current distribution.

Population justification
Partners in Flight estimated the population to number fewer than 50,000 individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2008), thus it is placed in the band 20,000-49,999 individuals here.

Trend justification
The population is suspected to be declining moderately rapidly owing to heavy pressure from capture for illegal trade (Cantu et al. 2007, Marín-Togo et al. 2012). The population on Tres Marías Island has reportedly declined (Collar and Boesman 2014).

The species inhabits tropical semi-deciduous to deciduous forest, riparian woodland, plantations, and secondary forest from sea level to 1,400 m (Collar and Boesman 2014). It feeds on fruits including small Ficus, berries and grass seeds. It breeds between June and July on Tres Marías Island and perhaps earlier on the mainland.

Capture for the wild-bird trade represents a serious threat with an estimated 8,000 individuals captured illegally per year (Cantu et al. 2007). The species's range falls within one of the main routes for illegal parrot trade in Mexico and heavy exploitation of the species is thought to be an important factor in its apparent absence from areas of suitable habitat (Marín-Togo et al. 2012).

Conservation and Research Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II.

Conservation and Research Actions Proposed
Enforce legislation to prevent illegal trade. Raise awareness of the species.

Related state of the world's birds case studies

Cantu, J.C., Sanchez, M.E., Grosslet, M. and Silva, J. 2007. The illegal parrot trade in Mexico: a comprehensive assessment. Defenders of Wildlife/Teyeliz.

Collar, N. and Boesman, P. 2014. Mexican Parrotlet (Forpus cyanopygius). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

IUCN. 2015. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2015-4. Available at: (Accessed: 19 November 2015).

Marin-Togo, M. C.; Monterrubio-Rico, T. C.; Renton, K.; Rubio-Rocha, Y.; Macias-Caballero, C.; Ortega-Rodriguez, J. M.; Cancino-Murillo, R. 2012. Reduced current distribution of Psittacidae on the Mexican Pacific coast: potential impacts of habitat loss and capture for trade. Biodiversity Conservation 21: 451-473.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Ashpole, J, Butchart, S. & Ekstrom, J.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2016) Species factsheet: Forpus cyanopygius. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2016) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/10/2016.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Souanc&eacute;, 1856)
Population size mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 115,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species