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Rufous-fronted Parakeet Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons

Justification
This species is listed to Vulnerable because it has a small population which is continuing to decline because of ongoing habitat degradation, with a high proportion of birds concentrated in one or two strongholds.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Identification
18-19 cm. Chunky parakeet. Mostly dark green, with rufous area around bill and bluish tinge to primaries. Similar spp. Barred Parakeet B. lineola generally occurs at lower elevations and is smaller, with pale bill, and black shoulder patch, wing-bars and barring on flanks. Voice Flight call a rapid wader-like mid-range chattering

Distribution and population
Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons is known only from the Central Andes in Colombia. Most records are from the Volcán Ruiz-Tolima massif in Tolima, Risaralda, Quindío and Caldas, but there are two specimens and a few observations from Volcán Puracé in Cauca, and it is probably present at low densities along the intervening ridge. The population has recently been estimated at 2,000-4,000 individuals (Renjifo et al. 2002), significantly higher than previous estimates. In September 1993, the species was found to be common (over 100 birds seen in eight hours) at El Bosque, below Laguna de Otún, in its stronghold, Los Nevados National Park (Salaman and Gandy 1993).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,000-4,000 individuals, roughly equating to 1,300-2,700 mature individuals.

Trend justification
A slow and on-going population decline is suspected on the basis of habitat destruction and degradation, particularly in the páramo.

Ecology
It inhabits temperate sub-páramo and páramo at 3,000-4,000 m, sometimes as low as 2,800 m. It also uses modified shrublands and agricultural areas in the temperate zone, and seems tolerant of heavily modified habitats (C. Downing in litt. 2003). It is a gregarious species, tending to occur in noisy flocks of 10-100 individuals, and roosting communally on cliffs (Juniper and Parr 1998). It forages terrestrially, mostly taking grass-seeds (especially Anthoxantum odoratum [Verhelst et al. 2002]), the fruits of Acaenia elongata (Verhelst et al. 2002) and flowers, and has adapted to some forms of habitat modification, possibly even preferring to feed in fallow fields and areas altered by grazing (P. G. W. Salaman in litt. 1999, Snyder et al. 2000, Verhelst et al. 2002). Although it reportedly nests in cliffs (Hilty and Brown 1986, Collar 1997), the only documented nest was constructed of moss and located 18m up in a Myrcianthes sp. tree (Anon. 2007).

Threats
Conversion of forest for agricultural purposes has been widespread below 3,300 m in the Central Andes. At higher elevations, the forest is exploited for firewood and grazing, but large areas remain. Given its adaptation to the agricultural environment, the level of threat posed by deforestation is unknown (Snyder et al. 2000). Conversely, widespread destruction of páramo vegetation, even in Los Nevados, seems to have seriously affected numbers. This is caused by frequent burning (promoting fresh shooting), intense grazing and, to a lesser extent, conversion to potato cultivation. The Colombian authorities have been unable to purchase pre-existing landholdings within national parks, often rendering the parks ineffective. It is occasionally kept as a pet.

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Known populations are within the ineffectively protected Los Nevados and Puracé National Parks (Snyder et al. 2000). Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey and monitor the species's population movements, densities and distribution. Clarify its natural history and threats to identify appropriate conservation actions (Snyder et al. 2000). Enhance the protection of Los Nevados through fire control, a major reduction in livestock-grazing and agriculture and, where necessary, compensation to farmers.

References
Anon. 2007. Discovered: the first ever nest of the Rufous-fronted Parakeet. Cyanopsitta: 15.

Collar, N. J. 1997. Psittacidae (Parrots). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 280-477. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.

Hilty, S. L.; Brown, W. L. 1986. A guide to the birds of Colombia. Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Renjifo, L. M.; Franco-Maya, A. M.; Amaya-Espinel, J. D.; Kattan, G. H.; López-Lans, B. 2002. Libro rojo de aves de Colombia. Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt y Ministerio del Medio Ambiente, Bogot, Colombia.

Salaman, P.; Gandy, D. 1993. Colombia '93: Thunder Lake Expedition.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Verhelst, J. C.; Pfeifer, A. M.; Orrego, O.; Botero, J. E. 2002. Observaciones sobre la ecología del Periquito Frentirufo Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons en zonas cercanas a la Laguna del Otún. Cotinga 18: 66-70.

Further web sources of information
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.

Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomoía y la categoría de la Lista Roja de la UICN pudo haber cambiado desde esta publicación.

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Isherwood, I., Sharpe, C J, Stuart, T., Symes, A.

Contributors
Downing, C., Salaman, P.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Rufous-fronted parakeet (Bolborhynchus ferrugineifrons) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Lawrence, 1880)
Population size 1300-2700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,200 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species