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Pearly Parakeet Pyrrhura lepida

Justification

Based on a model of future deforestation in the Amazon basin, although it shows some tolerance of degraded landscapes, it is nevertheless suspected that the population of this species will decline rapidly over the next three generations, and it has therefore been uplisted to Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html#.

Taxonomic note
Pyrrhura perlata, Pearly Parakeet (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) takes the name P. lepida following Collar (1997) because P. rhodogaster, Crimson-bellied Parakeet (Sibley and Monroe 1990, 1993) takes the name P. perlata

Synonym(s)
Pyrrhura perlata Collar and Andrew (1988), Pyrrhura perlata Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Pyrrhura perlata Stotz et al. (1996)

Distribution and population
Pyrrhura lepida occurs in north-east Brazil south of the Amazon (Juniper and Parr 1998). There are three recognised subspecies: the nominate in Belém and near the rio Capim, Pará, east to São Luís, Maranhão; coerulescens in north Maranhão east of Rosário; and anerythra in the catchment of the upper rio Xingú and its tributaries, from the rio Pracuí and the left bank of the rio Tocantins (Juniper and Parr 1998). It is generally uncommon and declining.

Population justification
The population is preliminarily estimated to number at least 10,000 individuals, roughly equating to 6,700 mature individuals. This requires confirmation.

Trend justification
This species is suspected to lose 47-64.5% of suitable habitat within its distribution over three generations (18 years) based on a model of Amazonian deforestation (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). However, given the species appears to have some degree of tolerance to habitat degradation (A. Lees in litt 2011), it is suspected to decline by 30-49% over three generations.

Ecology
It occurs in lowland terra firme humid forest, being reported from forest edge, clearings and second growth (Parker et al. 1996, Juniper and Parr 1998).

Threats
Despite an apparent tolerance of some habitat degradation, it is perhaps close to extinction in coastal areas of north Maranhão, owing to large-scale deforestation (Juniper and Parr 1998). It occurs within protected areas, but their integrity is compromised by illegal logging (Juniper and Parr 1998). Deforestation in the Amazon basin is expected to increase as land is cleared for cattle ranching and soy production, facilitated by expansion of the road network (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011). Proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code reduce the percentage of land a private landowner is legally required to maintain as forest (including, critically, a reduction in the width of forest buffers alongside perennial steams) and include an amnesty for landowners who deforested before July 2008 (who would subsequently be absolved of the need to reforest illegally cleared land) (Bird et al. 2011).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. Conservation Actions Proposed
*Census and monitor populations to assess the global population and demographic trends and to refine the distribution and locate strongholds. *Investigate its ecology, threats and conservation requirements. Strengthen the network of protected areas within remaining core habitat. Effectively resource and manage existing and new protected areas, utilising emerging opportunities to finance protected area management with the joint aims of reducing carbon emissions and maximizing biodiversity conservation. Conservation on private lands, through expanding market pressures for sound land management and preventing forest clearance on lands unsuitable for agriculture, is also essential (Soares-Filho et al. 2006). Campaign against proposed changes to the Brazilian Forest Code that would lead to a decrease in the width of the areas of riverine forest protected as Permanent Preservation Areas (APPs), which function as vital corridors in fragmented landscapes.

References
Bird, J. P.; Buchanan, J. M.; Lees, A. C.; Clay, R. P.; Develey, P. F.; Yépez, I.; Butchart, S. H. M. 2011. Integrating spatially explicit habitat projections into extinction risk assessments: a reassessment of Amazonian avifauna incorporating projected deforestation. Diversity and Distributions: doi: 10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00843.x.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Parker, T. A.; Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W. 1996. Ecological and distributional databases. In: Stotz, D.F.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Parker, T.A.; Moskovits, D.K. (ed.), Neotropical bird ecology and conservation, pp. 113-436. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Soares-Filho, B.S.; Nepstad, D.C.; Curran, L.M.; Cerqueira, G.C.; Garcia, R. A.; Ramos, C. A.; Voll, E.; McDonald, A.; Lefebvre, P.; Schlesinger, P. 2006. Modelling conservation in the Amazon basin. Nature 440(7083): 520-523.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Pyrrhura lepida. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 28/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Additional resources for this species

ARKive species - Pearly parakeet (Pyrrhura lepida) 0

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Wagler, 1832)
Population size 6700 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 548,000 km2
Country endemic? Yes
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species