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Hispaniolan Parakeet Psittacara chloropterus

Justification
This species has a small and fragmented range and population, which continues to decline as a result of habitat loss and persecution. It consequently qualifies as Vulnerable.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

Taxonomic note
Psittacara chloropterus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aratinga as A. chloroptera.

Synonym(s)
Aratinga chloroptera (Souancé, 1856)

Identification
30-33 cm. Plain green parakeet with red carpal and underwing-coverts. Bare white orbital ring, yellowish-green underside of flight feathers and tail and sometimes red feathers on head. Similar spp. Introduced Olive-throated Parakeet A. nana is smaller, duller green and lacks any red. Voice Screeching calls in flight and when perched. A. nana is higher-pitched.

Distribution and population
Aratinga chloroptera occurs in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, with feral populations in Puerto Rico (to USA) (Juniper and Parr 1998, Raffaele et al. 1998) and possibly Florida, USA (Juniper and Parr 1998), and Guadeloupe (to France) (Raffaele et al. 1998). The extinct race maugei formerly occurred on Isla Mona in Puerto Rico (Raffaele et al. 1998), but went extinct around 1900 (Fuller 2000). It is now generally rare with isolated populations in the Cordillera Central, Sierra de Baoruco and the suburbs of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (S. Latta in litt. 1998). Recent records from Monte Cristi and Ebano Verde may represent additional local populations (S. Latta in litt. 1998). Its status in Haiti is unclear. It has been suggested that it may be extinct in Haiti (Juniper and Parr 1998), and the species was not recorded in the previously inhabited La Viste National Park in 2000 (Dávalos and Brooks 2001), but there are also claims that it is common in the Massif de la Selle and la Citadelle area of the Massif du Nord (Raffaele et al. 1998).

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is suspected to be in decline at a slow to moderate rate owing to hunting, trapping and habitat loss.

Ecology
It inhabits all kinds of natural habitat from montane forest to arid lowland forest, palm-savannah and open woodland, and ranges into agricultural land and second growth (Juniper and Parr 1998). It occupies a wide altitudinal range from the lowlands to 3,000 m (Juniper and Parr 1998). Nesting takes place in tree-cavities or arboreal termite nests (Juniper and Parr 1998).

Threats
Habitat loss and persecution as a crop-pest are the greatest threats to this species. It is exploited for local and international trade, but only 12 wild-caught individuals were reported in international trade in 1991-1995 (Snyder et al. 2000).

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. In the Dominican Republic, it is legally protected against hunting and trapping, but this legislation is not adequately enforced (Snyder et al. 2000). An education strategy with community participation has been launched for the protection of this species (Vásquez et al. 1995). Interactions between this species and Olive-throated Parakeet A. nana (because of the recent increase in numbers of A. nana in the Sierra de Baoruco [S. Latta in litt. 1998]) are being investigated (Anon. 2007). A volunteer parrot protection group is to be set up and damaged nest cavities refurbished (Anon. 2007). Conservation Actions Proposed
Clarify the status of the species in Haiti. Study ecology and breeding success to determine natural limiting factors. Enforce existing legislation in the Dominican Republic.

References
Anon. 2007. Conservation of the Hispaniolan Parrot and Parakeet, Dominican Republic. Cyanopsitta: 18.

Dávalos, L. M.; Brooks, T. 2001. Parc national la Visite, Haiti: a last refuge for the country's montane birds. Cotinga 16: 36-39.

Fuller, E. 2000. Extinct birds. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Juniper, T.; Parr, M. 1998. Parrots: a guide to the parrots of the world. Pica Press, Robertsbridge, UK.

Raffaele, H.; Wiley, J.; Garrido, O.; Keith, A.; Raffaele, J. 1998. Birds of the West Indies. Christopher Helm, London.

Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Vásquez, R. E.; Lara, T.; Lorenzo, R. 1995. Estrategia educativa con la participación comunitaria para la protección de la cotorra y el perico en República Dominicana. Pitirre 8(3): 12.

Further web sources of information
Explore HBW Alive for further information on this species

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Khwaja, N., Mahood, S., Wege, D., Sharpe, C J

Contributors
Latta, S.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Psittacara chloropterus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/12/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Vulnerable
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Souancé, 1856)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 19,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species