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Ring-necked Francolin Francolinus streptophorus

Justification
Recent data for this species are lacking. However, it has apparently declined in both range and abundance and is now suspected to have a moderately small population. The reasons for this decline remain unknown, and it is presumably continuing. For these reasons, the species has been classified as Near Threatened. If it is found that the population is smaller and the decline more rapid than suspected, the species may qualify for a higher threat category.

Taxonomic source(s)
Dowsett, R. J.; Forbes-Watson, A. D. 1993. Checklist of birds of the Afrotropical and Malagasy regions. Tauraco Press, Li
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.

Identification
35 cm. Typical francolin with a dark brown back, dark flank stripes, bold white supercilium extending to the nape, red-brown face and neck sides, white throat and a black and white spotted collar. Has yellow legs. Similar spp. recalls Crested Francolin Francolinus sephaena but that species has red legs and lacks the bold flank stipes. Collar of Crested is less defined, and it lacks the red-brown face. Voice utters two, soft, dove-like coos

Distribution and population
Francolinus streptophorus has a disjunct distribution, with populations in Burundi, Cameroon, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. The stronghold was assumed to be in Uganda, where the species was thought to be common in suitable habitat. However, a paucity of recent records has raised suspicions that it is not common or widespread there. Recent records from Uganda all come from the west (Carswell et al. 2005), where it is regularly recorded from Murchison Falls National Park (M. Mills in litt. 2006, D. Pomeroy in litt. 2006). It is recorded sporadically in western Kenya (Lewis and Pomeroy 1989) and is reportedly fairly common in Tanzania. There are no recent records from Cameroon and recent attempts to locate it failed (Languy in prep.). It is recorded from Ruvubu National Park in Burundi (G. Citegetse in litt. 2006) and has apparently been recorded in Rwanda (Stevenson and Fanshawe 2002).

Population justification
The global population has not been quantified, but given the paucity of recent records it is thought to be moderately small. It is placed in the band 10,000-19,999 individuals, equating to 6,667-13,333 mature individuals, rounded here to 6,000-15,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
The species was previously described as common to abundant; however, recently there have been very few records, suggesting a moderately rapid decline.

Ecology
This species inhabits stony hillsides with sparse grass and shrub cover, and wooded grasslands at 600-1,800 m. It is very shy, flushes reluctantly, usually encountered in pairs or small parties, and is most active at dawn.

Threats
Previously thought to be common, the reasons for its apparent decline are not known, but habitat modification is the most likely cause.

Conservation Actions Underway
It occurs within Murchison Falls National Park in Uganda and Ruvubu National Park in Burundi. Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct surveys, including playback, to determine the current population and distribution. Identify the threats that have caused its apparent decline. Increase the area of suitable habitat that has protected status.

References
Carswell, M., Pomeroy, D.E., Reynolds, J. and Tushabe, H. 2005. British Ornithologists' Club, London, UK.

Lewis, A.; Pomeroy, D. 1989. A bird atlas of Kenya. A. A. Balkema, Rotterdam.

Madge, S.; McGowan, P. 2002. Pheasants, partridges and grouse: including buttonquails, sandgrouse and allies. Christopher Helm, London.

Stevenson, T.; Fanshawe, J. 2002. Field guide to the birds of East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi. T & A D Poyser Ltd, London.

Text account compilers
Ekstrom, J., Butchart, S., Bird, J., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Citegetse, G., Mills, M., Pomeroy, D.

IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Taylor, J.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Francolinus streptophorus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/04/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/04/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Phasianidae (Grouse, pheasants and partridges)
Species name author Ogilvie-Grant, 1891
Population size 6000-15000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 216,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Additional Information on this species
- Climate change species distributions