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Blue-winged Macaw Primolius maracana

IUCN Red List Criteria

Near Threatened (criteria nearly met) A2cd+3cd+4cd;C1 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Near Threatened
2012 Near Threatened
2008 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Near Threatened

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
Average mass 256 g

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,640,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1500-7000 poor Estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-1000000 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.2 - - -
Population justification: The population is estimated to be in the band 2,500-9,999 individuals in total, equating to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 individuals.
Trend justification: A moderately rapid and on-going population decline is suspected owing to habitat loss, capture for the cage-bird trade and persecution as a crop pest.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina Native Extant      
Brazil Native Extant      
Paraguay Native Extant      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Brazil Boa Nova / Serra da Ouricana site factsheet
Brazil Cafundó e Bananal do Norte site factsheet
Brazil Chapada do Araripe site factsheet
Brazil Cristalino / Serra do Cachimbo site factsheet
Brazil Curaçá site factsheet
Brazil Estação Ecológica de Uruçuí-Una site factsheet
Brazil Fazenda Pindobas IV e Arredores site factsheet
Brazil Fazenda Santana site factsheet
Brazil Ilha de Marajó site factsheet
Brazil Itarana site factsheet
Brazil Mocambinho site factsheet
Brazil Murici site factsheet
Brazil Nascentes do Rio Parnaíba site factsheet
Brazil Parque Estadual da Serra do Brigadeiro site factsheet
Brazil Parque Estadual do Rio Doce site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães e Adjacências site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros e Adjacências site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra da Bodoquena e Entorno site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra da Capivara site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional da Serra das Confusões site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional de Itatiaia site factsheet
Brazil Parque Nacional do Caparaó site factsheet
Brazil Raso da Catarina site factsheet
Brazil Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural SESC Pantanal e Entorno site factsheet
Brazil Serra da Canastra site factsheet
Brazil Serra do Caraça site factsheet
Brazil Serra do Gado Bravo e entorno site factsheet
Brazil Serra do Teimoso site factsheet
Brazil Serra Negra (Floresta) site factsheet
Brazil Sooretama / Linhares site factsheet
Brazil Vitória da Conquista site factsheet
Paraguay Arroyo Blanco site factsheet
Paraguay Cerro Guazú site factsheet
Paraguay Estancia Itabó site factsheet
Paraguay Ypané Medio site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Savanna Dry major resident
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Decline Medium Impact:
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Primolius maracana. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/07/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Near Threatened
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Vieillot, 1816)
Population size 1500-7000 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 3,640,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species