This species is listed as Vulnerable because it has a small population which is declining owing to exploitation for the cagebird trade and deforestation.
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Use of the genus Primolius follows SACC (2006).
Ara couloni Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Ara couloni Stotz et al. (1996), Ara couloni couloni Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993), Ara couloni couloni Stotz et al. (1996), Propyrrhura couloni del Hoyo et al. (1997), Propyrrhura couloni
41 cm. Small, colourful macaw. Pale green body with blue edge of wing, primary coverts and flight feathers. Blue head with small grey bare face patch extending from bill around eye. Medium-sized grey bill. Red uppertail, shading to pale blue at tip. Underside of wings and tail dusky yellow. Similar spp. Blue-winged Macaw P. maracana has mostly green head with red front, pale face patch and dark bill. Voice in flight gives a soft rasping purrr or raaah, also a variety of high-pitched srieks and squawks.
Lambert, F.; Wirth, R.; Seal, U. S.; Thomsen, J. B.; Ellis-Joseph, S. 1993. Parrots: an action plan for their conservation 1993-1998.
del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. 1997. Handbook of the Birds of the World, vol. 4: Sandgrouse to Cuckoos. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.
Whittaker, A.; Oren, D. C. 1999. Important ornithological records from the Rio Juruá, western Amazonia, including twelve additions to the Brazilian avifauna. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 119: 235-260.
IUCN, S. S. C.; TRAFFIC. 2002. IUCN analyses of proposals to amend the CITES appendices.
Tobias, J. A.; Brightsmith, D. J. 2007. Distribution, ecology and conservation status of the Blue-headed Macaw Primolius couloni. Biological Conservation 139(1-2): 126-138.
Further web sources of information
Hear sounds for this species from xeno-canto, the community database of shared bird sounds from around the world.
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Harding, M., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.
Brightsmith, D., Gilardi, J., Herzog, S., Lee, A., Lloyd, H., Olmos, F., Tobias, J.
IUCN Red List evaluators
Butchart, S., Symes, A.
BirdLife International (2013) Species factsheet: Primolius couloni. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2013. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2013) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/05/2013.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
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Additional resources for this species
|Current IUCN Red List category||Vulnerable|
|Species name author||(P. L. Sclater, 1876)|
|Population size||9200-46000 mature individuals|
|Distribution size (breeding/resident)||373,000 km2|
|Links to further information|
|- Additional Information on this species|