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Great Green Macaw Ara ambiguus

IUCN Red List Criteria

Critically Endangered  
Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd; C1+2a(ii) 
Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd 

IUCN Red List history

Year Category
2013 Endangered
2012 Endangered
2008 Endangered
2005 Endangered
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern

Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type continent
Average mass -

Distribution

  Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 100,000 medium
Number of locations 5 -
Fragmentation -

Population & trend

  Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor Inferred 2005
Population trend Decreasing poor -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulation 1001-1000000 - - -
Population justification: The global population is estimate to number fewer than 2,500 mature individuals, or fewer than 3,700 individuals in total, when juveniles and immatures are included (O. Jahn in litt. 2005, in litt. 2007). There were estimated to be 1,530 individuals in the southern Nicaragua - northern Costa Rica population in 2009.
Trend justification: High annual deforestation rates combined with illegal capture for the pet trade and subsistence hunting mean there is little doubt that global populations have been reduced over the past three generations by >50 %.

Country/Territory distribution

Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Breeding Non-breeding Passage Resident
Colombia Native Extant Yes      
Costa Rica Native Extant       Yes
Ecuador Native Extant Yes      
Honduras Native Extant Yes      
Nicaragua Native Extant Yes      
Panama Native Extant Yes      

Important Bird Areas where this species has triggered the IBA criteria

Country/Territory IBA Name IBA link
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Ensenada de Utría site factsheet
Colombia Parque Nacional Natural Los Katíos site factsheet
Costa Rica Arenal-Monteverde site factsheet
Costa Rica Cahuita, Gandoca-Manzanillo and Migratory Bird Corridor site factsheet
Costa Rica Caribbean lowlands and wetlands site factsheet
Costa Rica Central Volcanic Cordillera site factsheet
Costa Rica La Amistad Caribe site factsheet
Ecuador Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco site factsheet
Ecuador Cayapas-Santiago-Wimbí site factsheet
Ecuador Territorio Étnico Awá y alrededores site factsheet
Ecuador Verde-Ónzole-Cayapas-Canandé site factsheet
Honduras Parque Nacional Patuca site factsheet
Honduras Río Plátano site factsheet
Honduras Tawahka site factsheet
Nicaragua Bluefields Bay and adjacent landscape site factsheet
Nicaragua Bosawas site factsheet
Nicaragua Indio Maíz site factsheet
Nicaragua Miskito Keys and terrestrial landscape site factsheet
Nicaragua Musun Hill site factsheet
Nicaragua Prinzapolka/Alamikamba Rivers site factsheet
Nicaragua Punta Gorda site factsheet
Nicaragua San Juan River - La Inmaculada Concepcion de Maria site factsheet
Nicaragua Silva Hill site factsheet
Nicaragua Wawashan site factsheet
Panama Bagre Biological Corridor site factsheet
Panama Cerro Hoya National Park site factsheet
Panama Darien-Cerro Sapo National Park (Darién National Park IBA) site factsheet
Panama Golfo de los Mosquitos Forests site factsheet
Panama La Amistad International Park (part of La Amistad and Surrounding Areas AZE) site factsheet
Panama Majé Hydrological Reserve site factsheet
Panama Narganá Wildlands Area site factsheet
Panama Serranía de Majé site factsheet

Habitats & altitude

Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 0 - 1500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact

Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops / Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching / Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals / Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting / Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Decline Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Subsistence, National Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Ara ambiguus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/09/2014.

This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000) Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004) Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.

To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife

To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.

Key facts
Current IUCN Red List category Endangered
Family Psittacidae (Parrots)
Species name author (Bechstein, 1811)
Population size 1000-2499 mature individuals
Population trend Decreasing
Distribution size (breeding/resident) 100,000 km2
Country endemic? No
Links to further information
- Summary information on this species