Although this species exists in several captive populations, the last known individual in the wild disappeared at the end of 2000, and no others may remain, primarily as a result of trapping for trade plus habitat loss. However, it cannot yet be presumed to be Extinct in the Wild until all areas of potential habitat have been thoroughly surveyed. Any remaining population is likely to be tiny, and for these reasons it is treated as Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct in the Wild).
SACC. 2006. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.html.
Sibley, C. G.; Monroe, B. L. 1990. Distribution and taxonomy of birds of the world. Yale University Press, New Haven, USA.
Stotz, D. F.; Fitzpatrick, J. W.; Parker, T. A.; Moskovits, D. K. 1996. Neotropical birds: ecology and conservation. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.
Distribution and population
55-57 cm. Delicate, blue-grey macaw with long tail and wings. Pale ashy-blue head, distinctively square shaped. Pale blue underparts. More vividly blue in upperparts, wings and long tail. Voice Strong, clear cra-á cra-á cra-á.
This species was known for over 150 years, from small numbers of traded birds and a hunted bird taken by von Spix, until it was traced in 1985-1986 to near the rio São Francisco in north Bahia, Brazil
. Only three birds remained and these were captured for trade in 1987 and 1988. However, a single male, paired with a female Blue-winged Macaw Propyrrhura maracana
, was discovered at the site in July 1990. A female C. spixii
was released from captivity in 1995 and initially paired with the male. Unfortunately, the female disappeared from the release site after seven weeks and is suspected to have collided with a power-line (Caparroz et al.
2001). The wild bird was still paired with the female P. maracana
in January 2000 (Y. de Melo Barros in litt.
1999, 2000) but neither bird has been seen since the end of that year. In 2000, the total number of publicly declared birds in captivity was 60, but 54 of these were captive-bred (Schischakin 2000). The official captive population in 2012 totals 80 individuals, with a further c.13 in private ownership. There are occasional local reports, including from Serra da Capivara National Park, which provide some hope that the species may be extant (Tobias et al
. 2006). Population justification
Any remaining population is assumed to be tiny (numbering fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals), based on the disappearance of the last known individual.Ecology
It apparently requires gallery woodland dominated by caraiba Tabebuia caraiba
trees for nesting, but feeds mainly on two regionally characteristic Euphorbiaceae
plant species. Breeding occurs during the austral summer. Two or three eggs are laid in the wild (up to five in captivity). The wild bird and the P. maracana
apparently produced infertile eggs, although one experienced very early embryo death, subsequent DNA analysis revealing a hybrid. Threats
The decline of Spix's Macaw has generally been attributed to two principal factors. First, long-term destruction of the specific gallery woodland habitat on which the species apparently depended, the result of the colonisation and exploitation of the region along the Rio São Francisco corridor during more than three centuries. Secondly, trapping for the illegal live bird trade in recent decades pushed the species towards extinction. In addition, the colonisation of the distributional range by introduced aggressive African bees, and the building of the Sobradinho hydroelectric dam above Juazeiro may have contributed, perhaps significantly, to the species's decline in the 1970s and 1980s. Direct hunting is considered a factor of minor importance in the overall decline, even though several reports of shooting are on record. Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II and is protected under Brazilian law. Ten years of protection, habitat restoration and a variety of on-going community conservation programmes, will pave the way for future reintroductions (Y. de Melo Barros in litt.
1999, 2000, Caparroz et al.
2001). IBAMA established the Brazilian government's Permanent Committee for the Recovery of the Spix's Macaw and cooperation between holders of birds resulted in annual increases in the captive population. This body is succeeded by the Working Group for the Recovery of Spix's Macaw (de Soye and de Melo Barros 2006), now overseen by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation (ICMBio). This group is responsible for coordinating the captive breeding programme and there will be on-site reintroduction facilities later followed by on-site breeding facilities. The official captive population totalled 80 individuals in 2012, and important proportions of this are currently held by Al-Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP), Qatar and Loro Parque Fundación (LPF), Tenerife, Spain. Other official holders are in Brazil and Germany. Including birds not registered in the official programme, over 90 individuals are thought to exist in captivity worldwide. Successful breeding has occurred within some registered facilities, most recently in 2010 at AWWP and LPF. The latter has maintained the species since 1984 and in 2007 opened a new breeding centre for Spix's Macaws (Anon 2008a). A captive management and species recovery handbook is in preparation for this species. In February 2009 Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation (AWWP) announced the purchase of the 2,200 ha Concordia Farm in Bahia state, Brazil, site of one of the last recorded sightings of wild Spix's Macaw, in October 2000 (Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation undated). Concordia Farm was also the base of the Spix's Macaw field project, largely financed by the LPF, which operated throughout the 1990s until completion in 2002, and release site for the only captive Spix's Macaw yet to be released back into the wild, in 1995. Concordia Farm abuts the 400 ha Gangorra Farm, previously purchased by a conservation consortium. It is planned to allow both farms to return to a more natural state by removing domestic livestock, with the long term goal of the sites proving to be a valuable habitat resource for future reestablishment of a wild population. Conservation Actions Proposed
Identify a suitable release site for the potential annual release of captive-bred birds starting between 2013 and 2030 depending on the success of captive breeding efforts (de Soye and de Melo Barros 2006). Protect and improve habitat at the identified release site (de Soye and de Melo Barros 2006). Establish a well-resourced on site re-introduction facility at Praia do Forte under IBAMA ownership (de Soye and de Melo Barros 2006). Introduce captive-bred fledglings and ensure protection from trappers. Continue cooperation between holders of captive birds. Continue ecological studies to assess the need for habitat management (Snyder et al.
2000). Continue the community programmes.
Related state of the world's birds case studies
Al Wabra Wildlife Preservation. undated. Press release 26: Restoring the Spix's Macaw habitat. Available at: #http://awwp.alwabra.com/index.php/content/view/361/30/#.
Anon. 2001. The Spix's Macaw recovery committee will be restructured. Cyanopsitta 60: 16-17.
Anon. 2008. The new Spix's Macaw breeding centre of LPF. Cyanopsitta: 3-5.
Caparroz, R.; Miyaki, C. Y.; Bampi, M. I.; Wajntal, A. 2001. Analysis of the genetic variability in a sample of the remaining group of Spix's Macaw (Cyanopsitta spixii, Psittaciformes: Aves) by DNA fingerprinting. Biological Conservation 99: 307-311.
Collar, N. J.; Gonzaga, L. P.; Krabbe, N.; Madroño Nieto, A.; Naranjo, L. G.; Parker, T. A.; Wege, D. C. 1992. Threatened birds of the Americas: the ICBP/IUCN Red Data Book. International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge, U.K.
de Soye, Y; Barros, Y.de M. 2004. Saving the Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii - a captive management and species recovery handbook (CD-ROM). Loro Parque Foundation.
Reinschmidt, M. 2004. Another sensational hatching of Spix's Macaw at Loro Parque. AFA Watchbird: 28.
Schischakin, N. 2000. Conservation spotlight: the Spix's Macaw. Endangered Species Update 17: 44-6.
Snyder, N.; McGowan, P.; Gilardi, J.; Grajal, A. 2000. Parrots: status survey and conservation action plan 2000-2004. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Tobias, J. A.; Butchart, S. H. M.; Collar, N. J. 2006. Lost and found: a gap analysis for the Neotropical avifauna. Neotropical Birding: 4-22.
Further web sources of information
Alliance for Zero Extinction (AZE) species/site profile. This species has been identified as an AZE trigger due to its IUCN Red List status and limited range.
Detailed species account from the Threatened birds of the Americas: the BirdLife International Red Data Book (BirdLife International 1992). Please note, taxonomic treatment and IUCN Red List category may have changed since publication.
Recuento detallado de la especie tomado del libro Aves Amenazadas de las Americas, Libro Rojo de BirdLife International (BirdLife International 1992). Nota: la taxonomo
Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Bird, J., Butchart, S., Calvert, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A.
de Melo Barros, Y., Balfour, S.
BirdLife International (2014) Species factsheet: Cyanopsitta spixii. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2014) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 19/04/2014.
This information is based upon, and updates, the information published in BirdLife International (2000)
Threatened birds of the world. Barcelona and Cambridge, UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, BirdLife International (2004)
Threatened birds of the world 2004 CD-ROM and BirdLife International (2008) Threatened birds of the world 2008 CD-ROM. These sources provide the information for species accounts for the birds on the IUCN Red List.
To provide new information to update this factsheet or to correct any errors, please email BirdLife
To contribute to discussions on the evaluation of the IUCN Red List status of Globally Threatened Birds, please visit BirdLife's Globally Threatened Bird Forums.
Additional resources for this species